Title: UN Peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Growth Industry

Release Date: 2016-12-07

Document Date: 2004-03-16

Description: An article describes the current state of U.N. peacekeeping operations in sub-Saharan Africa and predicts growth in missions and personnel. There is no mention of NSA or SID participation.

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(U) UN Peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Growth Industry
FROM:
Deputy SINIO for Global and Multilateral Issues (S17)
Run Date: 03/16/2004
FROM:
Deputy SINIO for Global and Multilateral Issues (S17)
(U) UN peacekeeping operations in Sub-Saharan Africa consume a vast amount of resources,
both in terms of personnel and funding, and the number of operations far exceeds those in other
regions. While UN peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa has had mixed success, the missions
themselves are inevitable because seeking a peaceful resolution to crises and improving human
rights are precisely why the UN was created. With four UN peacekeeping missions already
underway in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ethiopia/Eritrea, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
the UN warned member states in December 2003 to be prepared to provide troops for additional
operations in Africa in 2004.
(U) Already a mission in Cote d'Ivoire has been approved and missions in Burundi, and Sudan
are being considered. In addition, Undersecretary General for Peacekeeping Operations JeanMarie Guehenno has noted that, "we may need substantial numbers of military personnel...to
ensure a robust and force-protected posture in the conduct of their operations."
(U) For the United States, UN peacekeeping operations in Africa claim a significant amount of
policymaker time and a sizeable amount of US funds. The four UN peacekeeping missions
underway in Sub-Saharan Africa have a combined annual budget of $1.9 billion-almost twice as
much as the cost of all other peacekeeping missions combined. The United States pays
approximately 27% of this bill-about $500 million. UN peacekeeping missions in Sub-Saharan
Africa are authorized to have more than 50,000 military and civilian personnel-five times more
than the number in any other region.
(U) The three new missions would put the cost of UN peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa over
the $2 billion mark, with the United States probably picking up its 27 percent of the tab.
Moreover, donor fatigue from troop contributing nations is becoming more prevalent as many of
the current UN missions, both in Africa and elsewhere, still are not at full strength. The United
States therefore may face increased pressure in 2004 to contribute troops to at least one of the
proposed UN peacekeeping missions. Sudan is the most likely candidate, given the significant US
involvement in getting the warring parties to sign a peace accord.
(S) Assistant Secretary of State, International Organizations, Kim Holmes asserted during a
November 2003 visit to NSA that the Security Council spends more than 50 percent of its time
on African issues. This is particularly noteworthy when weighed against such critical issues as
Iraq and Afghanistan, which presumably consumed most of the Council's remaining time in
2003.
(S) Moreover, the peacekeeping proposals for the region that are brought before the Security
Council have significance for some of the Permanent Five (P-5) members (US, UK, China,
Russia, France) beyond the costs of such missions and the impact on the region. The historic
colonial ties between the UK and Africa and France and Africa give those two P-5 members more
of a stake in efforts to establish peacekeeping operations. China, for its part, is seeking to carve
out a role as "leader of the developing world" which, coupled with its growing economicespecially oil-investments in Sub-Saharan Africa, could lead this P-5 member to support
peacekeeping missions as a means of enhancing its stature with developing leaders in general
and African leaders in particular.
(U//FOUO) Crises in Africa, while not generally in the media spotlight, still claim a significant
portion of both US Government and United Nations time and resources. Future UN peacekeeping
operations in Sub-Saharan Africa are inevitable and the United States probably will face

increased pressure to provide troops as well as funding in the near future.
(U//FOUO) POC: D/SINIO Global and Multilateral Issues,
@nsa,

,

"(U//FOUO) SIDtoday articles may not be republished or reposted outside NSANet
without the consent of S0121 (DL sid_comms)."

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DERIVED FROM: NSA/CSSM 1-52, DATED 08 JAN 2007 DECLASSIFY ON: 20320108

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