Title: The Art of Deception: Training for a New Generation of Online Covert Operations

Release Date: 2014-02-25

Description: This training presentation from GCHQ’s Human Science Operations Cell (HSOC) and Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group (JTRIG) describes the elements of “online covert action”: see the Intercept article How Covert Agents Infiltrate the Internet to Manipulate, Deceive, and Destroy Reputations, 25 February 2014.

Document: impress

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JTRIG

Online HUMINT Strategie Influence
Disru ption and CNA

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ANTHROPOLOGY

SOCIOLOGY

/

/

/

l

I

\

\

HISTORY

PSYCHOLOGY

ECONOMICS

POLITICAL SCIENCE

BIOLOGY

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Ethnography

Cultu re

Deception

Influence

Ethnography

SOCIOLOGY

ANTHROPOLOGY

Magic

PSYCHOLOGY

Compliance

\

Obedience

Social Networks

>

HISTORY

cw >

Personality

Trust

Elicitation

ECONOMICS

Belief

Religion

Key Leader Engagement

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Global Trends

BIOLOGY

Neuroscience

Evolutionary Biology

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SCIENCE SIGINT
SKILLS SYSTEMS

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JTRIG

Online HUMINT Strategie Influence
Disru ption and CNA

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We want to build Cyber Magicians.

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ocaa

Online Covert Action

Accreditation

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AC N O Key

Skill Strand

Online

HUMINT

SECRE

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Influence &

Info Ops

Disruption & CNA

Magic Techniques & Experiment

Individual

Psychology

Deception

Professionalism

Group

Elegance

r 1 Performance L A r ^ Creativity L à

Global

Media

Intuition

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ACNO Key

Skill Strands

SECRE

Online

HUMINT

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Influence &

Info Ops

Disruption & CNA

Magic Techniques & Experiment

Behaviour

&

Influence

Individual

Personality (OCEAN)

Remote Assessment
in Digital Cues

Self

(who I am? Motives &
exploiting them)

CONSPIRACY

STORIES

1

Group

Virtual Communities

-

Social Identity Theory

Social Proof/
ing etc
Group
Dynamics

Professionalism

LU 1 legance ■
Optimising Deception Channels
Process of Reflection to assess if we are doing op elegantly



DIFFUSION OF
INNOVATION

Global

SOCIAL

NETWORKS

Constructing
News System

Financial Ecosystem
of Media

istorming

sider alternate
/spectrves

Intel
Analysis

Creativity

Constructing experience
in mind of target which
should be accepted so
they don't realise it

PROPAGANDA

BRANDING

SE(V

Media

TAA

ADVERTISING
Sell-own - Earn

0 USA,FVEY

Thin Slicing
Design,
Retention
& Trust

How to do some of this in
real time so need to
understand what you are
doing in this psychology
Reading from digital tells but
going with performance to
reduce my risk but satisfy
Target's inquisition

ACNO Key

Skill Strands

SECRE

Online

HUMINT

'//SI//RELTO USA, FVEY

Influence &

Info Ops

Disruption &
Comp Net Attack



Mental
Health &

Psychopathy

Decision Making

Rationale Choice
Crime & punishment

Magic Techniques & Experiment

Planning

Individual

BELIEF

Behaviour

&

Influence

STRATEGY

Personality (OCEAN)



:a

INSIDERS

Destructive

Organisational

Psychology

Campaign

Planning

(why we are doing
what we are)

Professionalism

Remote Assessment
in Digital Cues

PLANNED

INTERVENTION

Self

(who I am? Motives &
exploiting them)

CONSPIRACY

STORIES

Morality & Ethics

Cyber Cultures
across

Organisations

Legitimisation of
Violence

Influence

HINDSIGHT

BIAS

Building

Relationships

CONFIRMATION

BIAS

ANCHORING

Mirroring/

Mimicry

PRIMING

Reducing

Group

Effectiveness

Motives
Roles
Influence/Cascade

Social Penetration
Theory

Social Identity Theory

Social Proof/
Herdi

Becoming /
Targeting

Performance

How to act / behave

i

LU 1 legance ■
Optimising Deception Channels
Process of Reflection to assess if we are doing op elega ntly

r

DIFFUSION OF
INNOVATION



Self Presentation
in Cyber context



NARRATIVE

Global

Constructing
News System

Media

istorming

sider alternate
/spectives

Intel
Analysis

Creativity

Constructing experience
in mind of target which
should be accepted so
they don't realise it

Intuition

PROPAGANDA

BRANDING

se6

MARKETING

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TAA

ADVERTISING
Sell-own - Earn

Thin Slicing
Design,
Retention
& Trust

-TO USA, FVEY

How to do some of this in
real time so need to
understand what you are
doing in this psychology
Reading from digital tells but
going with performance to
reduce my risk but satisfy
Target's inquisition

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Human Science Learning Path

Human
Aspects of
Cyber
Operations
(3 day)

Core

Scams

And

Deception
(2 weeks)

Strategic

Influence

(1 day)





Influence

Psychology
And Cyber-
psychology
(1 day)

U



Digital

Tells

(1/2 day)

\

Online HUMINT

Social

Engineering
For CNA

(e-learning)

\

CNA and Disruption

ocaa

HSOC

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Magicians, the military and intelligence

Jean Robert-Houdin

1856 mission on behalf of
Napoleon III to help quell the
Marabout-led uprising in
Algeria.

Jasper Maskelyne

1940s Camouflage work
during the Second World War.

John Mulholland

1950s CIA work on the
application of conjuring to
‘clandestine activities’.

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i • z' •

*■“ * • r— « /

Dissimulation - Hide the real

Masking

Repackaging

Dazzling

Mimicking

Inventing

Decoying

Simulation - Show the false

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The psychological building blocks of deception

Sensemaking

Behaviour

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Drever

Boon

Now

Map of technologies to message delivery

Personal

Community of Interest

Global

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Attention Management

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Expectancies

• We look where we expect
something interesting to
happen

• We are biased to
see/hear/feel/smell/taste
what we strongly expect to
see/hear/feel/smell/taste

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Gambits for Deception



II

u

Control attention The bi9 move The Target Attention drops Repetition

Attention Conspicuity& covers the little looks where you at the perceived reduces

n ♦ (look end vigilance

_______II_____________IL_____________IL_

Expectancies

move

Mm

. Jask/Mimic
Perception Eliminate - Blend

lecreate - Imitate

lepackage/lnve
it

lodify old cues
Create new cues

azzle/Decoy

Slur old cues
¡reate alternate cues

lake the cue
lynamic

¡ti mu late
ultiple sensor:

Sensemaking Eprior

resent story
ragments

:epetition

reates

¡xpectancies

laversack Ruse
[The Piece of
¡ad Luck)

¡wap the real
for the false,
vice versa

Affect

Behaviour

¡reate

¡ognitive

¡tress

Simulate the
action

Simulate the
outcome

Time-shift

perceived



behaviour

1(

Divorce
behaviour from
outcome

¡hannel

ehaviour

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ocaa

Online Covert Action

Accreditation

STRAND 2:

Influence and Information
Operations

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10 Principles for Influence

The Time Principle

The Deception

Principle

The Dishonesty

Principle

The Need and

Greed

Principle

The Social
Compliance/

Authority Principle

The Herd Principle

The Consistency

Principle

The

The Distraction

Principle

Reciprocity

Principle

The

Flattery Principle

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People make decisions as part of groups

People make decisions for emotional
reasons not rational ones.



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Social Creativity

"Passion, Density and Empowerment"

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your brand?

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© Apex

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ocaa

Online Covert Action

Accreditation

STRAND 3
Online HUMINT

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\ *

Openness

Contentiousness Extroversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

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Liking Certainty

Disclosure

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Mirroring

People copy each other while in social interaction with them.

body language
language cues
expressions
eye movements
emotions

Accommodation

Adjustment of speech, patterns, and language towards another person in communications

• People in conversation tend to converge

• Depends on empathy and other personality traits

• Possibility of over-accommodation and end up looking condescending

Mimicry

adoption of specific social traits by the communicator from the other participant

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Self-
actualization:

achieving one's
full potential,
including creative
activities

Esteem needs:

prestige and feeling of accomplishment

Belongingness and love needs:

intimate relationships, friends

Safety needs:

security, safety

Physiological needs:

food, water, warmth, rest

Self-fulfillment

needs

Psychological

needs

Basic

needs

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ocaa

Online Covert Action

Accreditation

STRAND 4

Disruption and Compute
Network Attack

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DISRUPTION
Operational Playbook

• Infiltration Operation

• Ruse Operation

• Set Piece Operation

• False Flag Operation

• False Rescue Operation

• Disruption Operation

• Sting Operation

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Identifying & Exploiting fracture points

Tension

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ocaa

Online Covert Action

Accreditation

Full roll out complete by early 2013
150+ JTRIG and Ops staff fully trained

Mainstreaming work - push reduced
"level 1" Tradecraft to 500+ GCHQ
Analysts

"Relentlessly Optimise Training
and Tradecraft"

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^GCHQ

“Conjuring

with

information



Teller, 1998

Head of Human Science
JTRIG-HSOC
NSTS:

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