Title: NSA High Frequency (HF) Collaboration efforts with Japan
Release Date: 2017-04-24
Document Date: 2013-01-02
Description: This internal briefing dated 2 January 2013 provides talking points for the NSA Director on restoring Japanese participation in the CROSSFIRE programme, which had stopped in 2009: see the Intercept article Japan Made Secret Deals With The NSA That Expanded Global Surveillance, 24 April 2017.
(S//REL TO USA, FVEY) Topic: NSA High Frequency (HF) Collaboration efforts with Japan
(S//REL TO USA, FVEY) Background: For many years, NSA collaborated with the DFS on
the exchange of high frequency direction finding (HFDF) information via the CROSSHAIR
direction finding network. Unfortunately, Japan's participation in CROSSHAIR effectively
ended in 2009. Japan prefers to perform DF manually. Our perception is that Japan has
interpreted CROSSHAIR participation as an inability to perform manual DF, which is not the
case. Since 2009, the Terrestrial RF Division (S3511) has been working to re-engage this partner
on the exchange of HFDF data. In response, the DFS recently agreed to a manual exchange of
KLEIGLIGHT HFDF data with NSA. Starting in July 2012, the NSA Office of China and Korea,
S2B, submitted 248 requests for HFDF lines of bearing (LOBS) to the DFS. The partner was
very efficient in responding to these requests, responding on average within three hours, aiding
S2B analysts in obtaining fixes on targets that could not be acquired using NSA's CROSSHAIR
system. During the same period, DFS made nine HFDF requests of S2B, all of which were
(S//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY) In November 2012, S3511 personnel briefed]_______
Director DFS, on NSA's new BORESIGHT HFDF system. In response, invited
NSA to visit Japan in 2013 for further discussions, emphasizing that cooperation on HFDF was
desired. However, he also expressed his need for concurrence from Japan's Ministry of Defense
before committing to an information exchange between BORESIGHT and Japan's system. He
stated that he would like NSA to better understand Japan's HFDF system and programmatic
constraints, which include the need to increase HFDF capabilities in the face of austere budgets.
(U) Potential Landmine:
• (S//NF) In the past, the Partner has mistakenly perceived that NSA was trying to force
DFS to use U.S. technical solutions in place of their own. When this occurred, the Partner
reacted in a strong, negative manner. NSA does not wish to replace the DFS HFDF
network with BORESIGHT. Rather, NSA's goal with DFS is system interoperability
through use of common data standards.
(U) Director’s Talking Points:
• (S//REL TO USA, JPN, FVEY) Thank the Partner for their cooperation in the current
effort to exchange HFDF data via KLEIGLIGHTS.
• (S//REL TO USA, JPN, FVEY) Reaffirm that NSA would like to send representatives to
Japan this year to further discuss HFDF collaboration.
• (S//REL TO USA, JPN, FVEY) State that NSA's ultimate goal is an automated exchange
of information via BORESIGHT. This automated exchange would be based on common
data standards and would not require Japan to adopt NSA HFDF technology, nor change
how DFS currently performs HFDF operations.
(U) Date of Material: 02 January 2013
Chief, Terrestrial RF Division, S3511,
Derived From: NSA/CSSM 1-52
Declassify On: 20380101
U//FOUO) Alt. POC:
, Deputy Chief, Terrestrial RF Division, S3511,
(U//FOUO) Classification Review By:
, CAO, S3511,