Title: Moving Data Through Disconnected Networks

Release Date: 2015-01-17

Document Date: 2012-06-18

Description: This June 2012 NSA presentation describes methods to exfiltrate data, even from networks that are apparently offline: see the Der Spiegel article The Digital Arms Race: NSA Preps America for Future Battle, 17 January 2015.

Document: Moving Data Through
Disconnected Networks

Delay-Tolerant Networking and

the IC (U//FOUO)

June ;

The overall classification of this briefing is:
TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Derived From: NSA/CSSM
1-52

Dated: 20070108
Declassify On: 20360901

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Outline

1. (U) Delay-Tolerant Networking intro

i Outside world: protocols and software

ii. 1C Applications of DTNs

2. (TS//SI//REL) Summary of R4 work

L CHIMNEYPOOL integration
m Wireless testing

3. (TS//SI//REL) Interesting details

¡. DTN Routing

¡i DTN Security

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY




Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (U)

- (U//FOUO) A wireless network with no

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Intermittently Connected Network (U)

(U//FOUO) Many wireless networks will not
have end-to-end cf^inectivity

Source

Destination

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY




Delay-Tolerant Networks (U)

(U//FOUO) DTNs use a store-carry-forward

approach to take ad
mobility

ntage of node

Destination

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Beginnings of DTN (U)

2000: Epidemic Routing
Vahdat and Becker

1990s: Interplanetary Network
NASA, JPL

2002, 2004: ZebraNet

Juang, Oki, Wang, Martonosi, Peh, Rubenstein

2002: Mobility Increases Capacity in Ad-hoc Wireless Networks
Grossglauser and Tse

2003: A DTN Architecture for Challenged Internets
Kevin Fall

2003: DataMULEs

Shah, Roy, Jain, Brunette

2003: Probabilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected
Networks

Lindgren, Doria, Schelen

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Beginnings of DTN: Epidemic (U)

• 2000: Epidemic Routing - Vahdat and Becker

• Nodes exchange "summary vectors"

. Each node sends the data that the other node lacks

• Summary vectors implemented as a Bloom Filter

• Followed by Immunity concept: Resource and performance tradeoffs
in deiay-toierant wireless networks, 2005; Small and Haas

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Beginnings of DTN: Zebra Net (U)

• Wildlife tracking project at Princeton

• GPS + other info gathered by collars on zebras

• Data migrated back to base using "History-Based"
routing



UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Beginnings of DTN: IPN (U)

Inter-Planetary Network

Long distances D long propagation delays

Intermittent connections

Known contact schedule D Contact Graph Routing
Worked on since the 1990s by NASA, JPL, incl Vint Cerf

[Figure taken from Vint Cerf’s 2010
presentation: “When Intuition Fails”]

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Beginnings of DTN: DataMULEs (U)

Data MULEs: modeling a three-tier architecture for sparse
sensor networks

2003 Paper by R. C. Shah, S. Roy, S. Jain, W. Brunette

Has mobile MULEs relaying data from sensors to well-
connected Access Points

Similar: A Message Ferrying Approach for Data Delivery in
Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, 2004; Zhao Ammar,
Zegura

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

What's a DTN For? (U//FOUO)

Wildlife tracking

ZebraNet, SWIM, TurtleNet

Outer space
Under water
Underground (mines)

[DTN Communication in a Mine, 2010
Ginzboorg, Karkkainen et al]

• VANETS, Public transit

DieselNet, Braunschweig, NICT

• Battlefields/disaster areas

DAR PA DTN Program

• Sensor nets

• Heterogeneous networks

[Integrating Multiple and Heterogeneous
Challenged Networks for Large-sized Data
Transfer, 2009 Nagata et al]

Rural areas

N4C, DakNet, KioskNet, TIER,
Bytewalla

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

What's a DTN for II (U//FOUO)

• Content dissemination

[PodNet, 2006 - Present; Legendre,
Lenders, May, Karlsson]

Haggle Project

• Social Networking

• Distributed Sotrage

[TierStore, 2008; Demmer, Du,
Brewer]

[DTN-based Content Storage and
Retrieval; Ott, Pitkanen]

Cellular Traffic Offloading

[Cellular Traffic Offloading through
Opportunistic Communications: A Case
Study, 2010; Han, Hiu et al]

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Standardization Activities* (U)

DTNRG has been part of the IRTF since (at least) 2002

RFC 5050 defines the Bundle Protocol

Application-layer overlay that moves "bundles" of data

Convergence Layers move bundles over different
networks __________

Application Application

Bundle Protocol

UDP CLA TCP CLA EthCLA

-i

UDP

TCP

IP

Ethernet

Click CLA

^tjUlnillr-

Shared

Mem

Cuntrd

Messages

f ^ BLindleinterface
UDPlPEncap
IP Fragment
EthcrEncap 1 Bcaconcr

Physical Layer

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

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Protocol Highlights (U//FOUO)

• Modular architecture

- Convergence layers

- Routers

- Neighbor discovery

• Security extensions

• Persistent storage

• Hop-by-hop and end-to-end reliability
possible

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



Bundle Protocol Architecture (U//FOUO)

Bundle

Layer

Bundle Protocol Agent (BPA)

Convergence TCP CL UDP CL File CL AX.25 ■ ■ ■
Layer CL

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Vapor

Bundle Protocol Stack Landscape

lava stack

Bytewalla

Cisco
Java stack

• 111 • 111 ■

cisco.

iPhone
GATech TCPCL
C# stack

Real

SPINDLE

DTN2 Reference
Implementation

IBR-DTN dtns60

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Vapor

Bundle Protocol Stack Landscape

Ito

lava stack

Bytewalla

(TS//SI//REL)

FUZZYLINT

Lightweight

BPA

Java stack
• 111 • 111 •
cisco.

iPhone
GATech TCPCL
C# stack

SPINDLE

DTN2 Reference
Implementation

IBR-DTN dtns60

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Real

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Summary of Intelligence
Community Applications

(U//FOUO)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Covert Communications (TS//SI//REL)



• (TS//SI//REL) Provide covert comms in denied areas
where no infrastructure exists, or where using the
infrastructure would compromise the operation.

• (S//REL) Several "brush-pass" wireless hand-offs as
an untraceable alternative to scheduled meetings,
dead drops.

• (TS//SI//REL) DTN provides an open-source solution
running on commercial handheld devices
Unattributable.

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Close

(TS//SI//REL)

• (TS//SI//REL) Implant in a secure
facility or denied area

• (TS//SI//REL) Need to transfer data
and commands over two or more
hops

• (TS//SI//REL) May rely on mobile
nodes and unwitting data mules

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//TK//REL TO USA, FVEY

NRO/MSD Collaboration

(TS//SI//TK) Moving data between ground stations using CubeSats.
Coverage every ~1.5 hours. Need DTN

(TS//SI//TK) They use DTN2, ION, contact graph routing

TOP SECRET//COMINT//TK//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Crowd Sourcing (U)

• (TS//SI//REL) Provide data flow in and out of
closed nations during internet shut-down

• (U) Ambitious BIG idea

• (U) Proposed CONOP not far from current
work

• (U) Proposed internally and externally

• (U) State Dept-funded project had an article
in NYT

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY


■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Tagging Tracking & Locating (U)





(U) Insert GPS trackers in cars or
electronics, but we may never see
them again

(TS//SI//REL) Migrate data back to
collection point via DTN

(TS//SI//REL) Original CONOP for
RAPTORGALAXY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT/TK//REL TO USA, FVEY

Summary of 1C applications (U//FOUO)

CovComm Close Access NRO CubeSat Comms Crowd- Sourcing Tagging Tracking & Locating
Unattributable Data exfiltration Com ms between Provide data flow in Very small hardware
COTS handsets from isolated networks and denied areas ground stations that only have occasional satellite coverage and out of closed nations Record locations and
Open-source TSV field test Use inexpensive CubeSat platform Ambitious BIG idea Proposed CONOP can be done now Proposed internally and externally encounters Use DTN to migrate data back to collection points

TOP SECRET//COMINT/TK//REL TO USA, FVEY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

DTN work at R4

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



Things We Have Done (U)

• Porting FOS DTN software to mobile devices

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Things We Have Done (U)

• Porting FOS DTN software to mobile devices

• Developing friendly user interface software so
anyone can use it

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

What We Have Been Building (U)

• Porting open source DTN software to mobile devices

• Developing friendly user interface software so anyone
can use it

• Testing - determining what actually works

• Field testing different configurations and scenarios

• Implementing security features

• Building new routing modules

• Adding geo-tagging/tracking features

• Experimenting with new neighbor discovery methods

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

FUZZYLINT and
CHIMNEYPOOL integration

(TS//SI//REL)

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

(Not So) Close Access

• (TS//SI//REL) Retrieving data from an
implant without visiting the implant
ourselves

• (TS//SI//REL) Need to add DTN link
capability to the implant

• (S//REL) Data mule may be unaware of
their role

• (TS//SI//REL)Rough prototype demoed
at Trident Spectre

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

STRAITBIZZARE (U)

• (TS//SI//REL) Cross-platform implant built using TAO's
CHIMNEYPOOL framework

- Ports for Linux, Windows, etc..

- Endpoint-centric : focused on file exfil from a PC

- Remote Procedure Call (RPC) based

• (TS//SI//REL) FRIEZERAMP protocol provides covert
networking

- CHIMNEYPOOL comms module

- Similar to IP, IPsec

- Only supports static network configuration

• (TS//SI//REL) FRIEZERAMP links are adapters to
converge FR packets onto the transport layer below

- Examples : https, udp, smtp, etc.

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Put SBZ on each device ... right?

(TS//SI//REL)

• (TS//SI//REL) File exfil CP modules and FRIEZERAMP
treats reliability as only an end-to-end issue

- FR retransmissions are requested by the receiver
and only the sender can retransmit

- Hop-by-hop reliability is desirable

• (TS//SI//REL) Persistent storage module only waits until
link is available then "send and forget"

• (U//FOUO) All routes are static and setup a priori

• (TS//SI//REL) Operationally, SBZ on each device is
undesirable in some CONOPs

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY



TSV CONOP (TS//SI//REL)

Target

Gumstix

N810

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Ultra-lightweight BPA (TS//SI//REL)

■ (TS//SI//REL) has been building

an ultra-lightweight BPA that can act as a CP
link to a DTN

• (U//FOUO) Locally provides data persistence,
discovery, routing, convergence layers

• (TS//SI//REL) FR packets are already
fragmented, so this BPA does not need to be as
flexible as others

• (S//REL)Can add covert Convergence Layer
Adapters

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY



TAO-Specific DTN Stack (TS//SI//REL)

STRAITBIZARRE WARRIORPRIDE


i j
I I
CP DTN Link Modules Comms API
A À

Next-Generation
Stage-2 Implant

DTN API

TCP CLA

Bundle Protocol Agent

Covert CLA??
(HTTP/S)

Covert CLA ??
(SMTP)

Discovery Agent
(DTN IPND Protocol)

Covert ??
Discovery Agent

Router

(Table Based)

Storage Agent
(File Based)

Covert CLA ??
(VOIP)

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY



TSV CONOP (TS//SI//REL)



i

Implanted

Target

/

1 Intermediate
Node

X

\

/

1 Intermediate
Node

X

\

' SBZ LP

\

v

SBZ
CP DTN

Lightweig

niP

_ _ ✓

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY



Platforms and Capabilities (TS//SI//REL)

Linux netbook Maemo iPhone Gumstix Android Windows and Java
DTN2
IBR-DTN
FUZZYLINT

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Wireless testbeds
(U//FOUO)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Reality Ninja (U//FOUO)

Reality

i ^

Frui

:

Application

V'" v

Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link

w

Physical



UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Reality Ninja (U//FOUO)

Reality

Network Emulators

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



Reality Ninja (U//FOUO)

Reality Network Emulators Simulation

\ A

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Reality Ninja (U//FOUO)

Reality

Network Emulators

Simulation

MeshTest

1 r— I-—

Frui

Application

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Session

ssion

Transport

Transport

Transport

nsDO

Network

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Mobile Wireless Testbed (U//FOUO)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Mobile Wireless Testbed (U//FOUO)

0 Stars
0Sky

0 NASA Blue Marble Image
0 Blue Marble (WMS) 200J
0 ¡-cubed Landsat
□ US DA NAJP
0 MS Virtual Farth Aerial
0 U5Q5 Ui bail Ai w OrLliu
0 Political Boundaries
0 Nodes
0 Place Names
0 World Map
0 scale bar
□¡View Controls
0 Compass
0 OperiSlieelMdp

vmi world wind controls

I Connertinn | Node Controls^_______________

Host

|l0 51,4, £_______________________________|

Port

|3336 11

Database Name

Ivirta (YeshTest I

Edge Database Name

| EDGE LI ST_____________________________|.

User ID

Database Password

____________________________________A

Start EKperiment

DisunrieO. Crum Husl/SLup Expel imeiiL
SaL Juii 04 17:06:04 EDT 2011

World

O Round ®Flat

Projection:

Altitude 10 km

Downloading

Lat 37.7800°

Lon -122.4735'

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



CMU Wireless Emulator (U//FOUO)

Emulation

Controller

CMU
Emulab
Boss, Ops

Signal

Conversion

Private

Control

Network

*

*

*

FPGA-baseii

Signal

Propagation

Emulation

User Access
Over
Internet

Signal

Conversion

Signal

Conversion

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Detailed Channel Modeling (U//FOUO)

Project hierarchy:...

□ □ X 0 Calculation Log:... [V]fn~ l X I

□ X Project view: (Rosslyn Tutorial)

'reject: Rosslyn Tutorial
E Antennas

* Features
r Images
f-Graphs

Output Filters
r Receiver sets
^ Requested output

• Study areas and Output
- Area: myareal

+ Point to point
i- Point to multipoint
b- Complex E-Fie Id
+ Complex impulse response
B- E-field X magnitude
B- E-field A phase
ffl E-field V magnitude
e- E-field V phase
b- E-field Z magnitude
+ E-field 2 phase

5 E-field RP15
B- E-field total X magnitude

6 E-field total X phase
& E-field total Y magnitude
+ E-field total Y phase
+ E-field total 2 magnitude
ffl E-field total Z phase
+ E-field total RMS
B- Excess time oF arrival
& Free-space power without anter
+ Free-space power with antenna
B- Path gain

ffl Path loss
E- Propagation paths

RooFtop Single Tx Point
| £ Rooftop LOS TX Point

i Added Single Rk Point
B- Received power
b- Time oF arrival
fe" Transmitter sets
Views

- Waveforms

Project Edit View Output "Select Help

Selection: Rooftop LOS Tx Point, point #1 -> Added Single Rx Point [Propagation paths]

D ' IS ■?? ® I I * Sal

[ÎI)1! Features |0I Images 4Sr Study areas

/fv. Transmitters

Gmail - Inbox (5036).

-, GNU Image Manipulât..

.*-■ î V

fn5 CADocuments and 5e.,

IB Ö

Active Visible | Description 1 Type No. points I Spacing | Antenna Waveform I Collection ra... Bounding bon Filename
Wo Yes Lynn St route 59 5.00 m Vertical dipole *908-5 MHz Auto Auto CADocuments and 5ettings\lls\My DocumenlsY..
No Yes N Moore St route 62 5.00 rn Vertical dipole “308-5 MHz Auto Auto CADocuments and Setting-Alts'-,My DocumentsY,,
No Yes N Kent St route 42 5.00 m Vertical dipole “908-5 MHz Auto Auto CADocuments and SettingsMtsSMy DocumentsY..
No Yes N Nash St/19th St route 112 5.00 m Vertical dipole “908-5 MHz Auto Auto L:\Documenls and Bettings Ml sL.My DocumenlsY..
No Yes Ft. My er Drive route 64 5.00 rn Vertical dipole *908-5 MHz Auto Auto CADocuments and 5ettings\lts\My DocumentsY..
Yes Yes Added Single Fix Point paints 1 N/A Vertical dipole 303-5 MHz Auto Auto CADocuments and SettingsMtskMy DocumenlsY..

¡election: Rooftop LOS Tx Point, point #1 -> Added Single Rx Point [Propagation paths]

Rosslyn T utoilal


Calculation finished. Elapsed time: 00:i

Propagation model parameters

Study area number: 1

Short description: myareal
Propagation model: full3d
Ray spacing [deg.): 0.250
Maximum reflections: 20

Maximum transmissions: 0

Maximum diffractions: 1

Maximum reflections before first d

Maximum reflections between diff
Maximum reflections after last diff
Maximum transmissions before fit:
Maximum transmissions between
Maximum transmissions after last
Ray tracing method: SBR
Ray tracing acceleration: auto
Using partitions.

Available Memory (MB) = 1797.6S
Maximum Memory Used (MB) = 1

Calculation mode before checking
Calculation Mode = 6

completed reading e-field records

mode after checking status of path
Calculation Mode = 6

Start combining fields and writing c

Writing point-to-rnany output
10 Percent Completed Oh Orn
20 Percent Completed Oh 0m

start interference analysis
finish interference analysis

Finish combining fields and writing

Timing results for study area rnyare

Combining Fields and Writing Cutp
Study Area Run Time: Oh Orn 2s f

Finished

Warning Messages
None

Stop time: 16:21:48 6/6/2011
Elapsed time: 25 seconds

j Lomm. systems

|h Materials xu



m

Y: 515.19 m
Z: 42.00 m

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Routing and Reliability Issues
Security Issues

Some Interesting Details

(U)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Routing in DTNs (U)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY




Flood Routing and Epidemic (U)

2000: Epidemic Routing [Vahdat and
Becker]

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Static Routing Background (U)

• Bundle Protocol Nodes are identified by Endpoint
Identifiers (EIDs) that look like:

dtn://dtnbone.umd.edu.dtn/

dtn://nodea.dtn/

ebr://group5.dtn/

• Convergence Layer connections to neighbors are
called "Links"

- For example a TCP connection to a neighbor is a link

• Each link knows the EID of the neighbor associated
with it

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


t0ÊÊÊfc, -

Static Routing Tables (U)

One-hop “Direct Delivery”

Destination Next hop Action
dtn://sam.dtn/ link-0 FWD
dtn://bob.dtn/ link-1 FWD
dtn://amy.dtn/ link-2 FWD

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UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY




Static Routing Tables (U)

Two-hop “Bundle Ferry”

Destination Next hop Action
dtn://sam.dtn/ dtn://ferry.dtn/ FWD
dtn://bob.dtn/ dtn://ferry.dtn/ FWD
dtn://amy.dtn/ dtn://ferry.dtn/ FWD
dtn://ferry.dtn/ link-0 FWD

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Static Routing Tables (U)

Two-hop “Bundle Ferry” with wildcards

Destination Next hop Action
dtn://sam.dtn/ dtn://ferry-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://bob.dtn/ dtn://ferry-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://amy.dtn/ dtn://ferry-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://ferry-27.dtn/ link-0 FWD
dtn://ferry-180.dtn/ link-1 FWD

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Static Routing Tables (U)

Multi-hop “Tiered routing”

Destination Next hop Action
dtn://twitter.dtn/ dtn://tierl-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://twitter.dtn/ dtn://tier2-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://twitter.dtn/ dtn://tier3-*.dtn/ FWD
dtn://twitter.dtn/ link-0 FWD

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

DTN Routing Bonanza (U)

(U//FOUO) People propose routing protocols for many
different environments and purposes.

- Sometimes with novel applications, sometimes with no
real need

(U) Has inspired the phrase "Yet Another Routing Protocol"

Static

Flooding

Static with copy links
Neighborhood
Epidemic
Endemic

Epidemic with Immunity

mphone

TIERStore

DTLSR

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

• (U//FOUO) Delay-Tolerant Link State Routing

- Assumes a mostly stable contact graph

- Nodes all flood their recent contacts

- Each node maintains an internal picture of the
network, and makes routing decisions based on
Dijkstra's alg

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

"Intelligent" Routing: PRoPHET (U)

• Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected
networks, 2003; A. Lindgren, A. Dona, and 0. Scheln

• Probabilistic Routing Protocol using History of
Encounters and Transitivity (PRoPHET)

amy 0.0
sam 0.0
joe 0.4

sam 0.9
bob 0.0
joe 0.0

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

"Intelligent" Routing: PRoPHET (U)

• Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected
networks, 2003; A. Lindgren, A. Dona, and 0. Scheln

• Probabilistic Routing Protocol using History of
Encounters and Transitivity (PRoPHET)

bob

amy 0.4
sam 0.9
joe 0.4

sam 0.9
bob 0.0
joe 0.0

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



Network-Coding in DTNs (U)

.->w ' \,

Imagine trying to distribute a 100MB
bundle in a DTN

Idea:

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY





Network-Coding in DTNs (U)

• Imagine trying to distribute a 100MB bundle in a DTN

• Idea: fragment into 1MB pieces

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Network-Coding in DTNs (U)

Send linear combinations of fragments

A receiver can collect any ten pieces and recover the
data

1MB

1MB

1MB

j 1MB

1MB 1MB

1MB

1MB

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Security in DTNs (U)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Security Threats (U)

• (TS//SI//REL) Protecting against rogue bundles being
injected into the network

• (TS//SI//REL) Prevent an adversary from modifying
legitimate bundles

• (S//REL) Protection against eavesdroppers

• (S//REL) Authenticate neighbors before establishing links

• (TS//SI//REL) Low Probability of Detection / Intercept

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Bundle Security Protocol RFC 6257 (U)

• (U) Provides bundle-layer encryption,
authentication, and data integrity

• (U) Lack of connectivity affects choice
of algorithms and services

• (U) Security polices may be directional

• (U//FOUO) Managing keys and their
accompanying policies is a challenge

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Bundle Authentication (U)

• (U) Hop-by-hop Authentication

• (U) Requires each device to generate a shared secret with
each of its neighbors

• (U//FOUO) Establishing these keys is a challenge

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Bundle Authentication (U)

• (U//FOUO) End-to-end authentication

- RSA digital signatures

• (U) Intermediate nodes can verify the
signature

• (U) Cannot assume connectivity to an
external Certificate Authority

• (U) For signatures, the certificate can
be appended to the message

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Bundle Encryption (U)

• (U//FOUO) Payload data encrypted
with AES in Galois Counter Mode
(GCM)

• (U) Provides data integrity

• (U) AES key is encrypted with the
destination's RSA public key

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Key Management Issues (U)

• (U) How to distribute public keys securely

• (U//FOUO) One option: pass certificates between devices

• (U//FOUO) Another option: pre-placing certificates

- Memory issues

• (U) Revoking keys of compromised devices

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Link-Layer Security (U)

(U//FOUO) Even with BSP, CL is wide open

(U//FOUO) Develop a mechanism to authenticate
neighbors before allowing them to connect

■ Enables dropping unwanted bundles

■ May prevent DoS through too many connections

(U//FOUO) Enable different groups of nodes to operate in
the same area but maintain separation

BPA BPA
TCP CL UDP CL TCP CL UDP CL

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Link-Layer Security (U)

(U) Constraints
Lightweight
Low setup latency
Limited bandwidth consumption
Minimal provisioning/maintenance

Compatible with short session
durations

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

Covert Discovery (S//REL)

• (TS//SI//REL) Have set up external
triggers for establishing DTN links

• (S//REL) Similar work being done
outside to reduce power consumption

• (U) Example: Bluetooth beacons
triggering a wifi connection

• (S//REL) Another option: use our own
radios for some hops

TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Surveillance-oriented

Demo (U)

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

/ \

Parking

\______________________

Data sources at "secret" locations on campus. Queue
up or generate data.

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Mobile data generator in a car sending
segments of audio

/ \

Parking

\_____________________/

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Destination node in parking lot by the
Comcast Center

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

f \

Parking

\_____________________/

Pedestrian relays walk around, and pick up
data from source nodes

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Car Players are typical data
ferries. They relay data to the
destination.

f \

Parking

\_____________________/

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

1. Sources

3. Relays

2. Relays

UNCLASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

UNC

Questions?

LASSIFIED II FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

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