Title: Games: a look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

Release Date: 2013-12-09

Document Date: 2007-01-01

Description: A 2007 proposal to the NSA from contractor SAIC, promoting the company’s ability to support “intelligence collection in the games space”: see the New York Times article Spies’ Dragnet Reaches a Playing Field of Elves and Trolls, 9 December 2013.

Document: Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

Table of Contents

FORWARD......................................................................4

CHAPTER 1 - EXPLOITATION AND FUNCITON OF GAMES: AN

INTERACTIVE INFLUENCE MEDIUM........................................5

Gaming Markets: Why We Care.................................................6

Demographics.........................................................6

Popularity...........................................................6

Functionality of Online Games...............................................8

Propaganda and Influence.............................................8

Communications......................................................10

Recruitment.........................................................10

Training and Simulation.............................................11

Fundraising.........................................................12

Ease of Production of Games................................................12

CHAPTER 2 - WHY GAMES ARE AN EFFECTIVE INFLUENCE PLATFORM ....15

Chapter Introduction.......................................................16

Active Learning............................................................17

Knowledge and Skills................................................17

Applied Teaching Tool...............................................20

Passive Messaging and Conditioning.........................................21

Value Systems.......................................................21

Emotions............................................................21

The “Return for More” Factor...............................................23

Engagement..........................................................23

Addiction...........................................................24

Chapter Addendum...........................................................24

CHAPTER 3 - PLAUSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THE USE OF GAMES IN

TERRORIST ACTIVITIES...............................................25

Chapter Introduction.......................................................26

Possible Terrorist Use of Different Game Genres............................28

First-person Shooter Games..........................................28

MMORPGs and Virtual Worlds..........................................29

Mixed or Alternate Reality Games....................................32

Simulation Games....................................................36

Knowledge-Based Games...............................................38

Strategy Games......................................................40

Chapter Addendum...........................................................41

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

CHAPTER 4 - EMERGING TRENDS NI THE GAMING SPACE..........................42

Emerging Trends...........................................................45

Broadband Diffusion.................................................45

Third Generation (3G) and Beyond....................................47

The Maturation of the Mobile Platform...............................49

The Rise of Virtual Worlds..........................................51

The Explosion of User Generated Content.............................54

Advances in Digital Rendering.......................................56

Advances in the Science of Haptics..................................57

Chapter Addendum..........................................................59

CHAPTER 5 - WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS VIRTUALLY...................60

Focus Areas...............................................................61

Countering In-Game Propaganda.......................................62

Competing for Players with New Games................................63

Collecting In-Game Intelligence.....................................64

Chapter Addendum..........................................................65

INDEX .....................................................................67

REFERENCES.................................................................71

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

FORWARD

Video games are a media platform that has become part of daily activity for many
around the world. Whether it is casual gaming on a cell phone or PC, or a virtual world
where individuals are connected via the Internet, interaction in and around games is
increasing. Games entertain, encourage interaction, enable financial gain, and teach
lessons. While many of these activities are meant to be harmless, they also have the
potential to be exploited for malicious activities.

Over the course of a year, extensive study was done on the common use of games and
their applicability to terrorist activities. Academic journals and papers, newspaper and
magazine articles, textbooks, non-fiction works, in-game exploration and personal
interviews on games, psychology and sociology, as well as attendance at seminars on
these issues (for example the Serious Games conference or SAIC’s Cyber-Influence
Conference series) represent the main sources for this report.

The report was written in five stand-alone papers that are compiled here as a
comprehensive primer for the current and potential future of game usage. A majority of
the information contained in this report identifies facts and trends and applies them to the
realm of IC concern (Chapters 1, 2, and 4). In addition, the paper contains examples of
fictitious scenarios that terrorists or extremists might employ (Chapter 3), technology
advancements and trends that might enable those scenarios (Chapter 4), and recommend
steps to ensure that those hypotheses are not realized (Chapter 5).

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

CHAPTER 1

Photo from a Second Life Gathering











from ScfpftrB to Sohitkm•

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

Gaming Markets: Why We Care

Demographics

The gaming population crosses age, gender and cultural boundaries, making
inroads into previously untapped markets and providing terrorist organizations with a
powerful platform to reach core target audiences.

• The core demographic for gaming is 18 - 35 year-old males. However, the
average age of the typical “gamer” increases by one year each year and women
now comprise nearly one-third of all adult gamers.1

• The online gaming population is expected to grow rapidly in the near term,
resulting in an estimated 10 million online game players in the U.S. (i.e. the
equivalent of the entire population of New York City) and 30 million online game
players worldwide (i.e. the equivalent of the entire population of Shanghai,
Bombay and Karachi combined).ii

• While the majority of online gamers originate from U.S. and Asian markets, the
rapid expansion of Internet cafes and broadband technologies will enable the
growth of online gaming populations in other regions. For example, the fastest
growing gaming markets are occurring in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.iii

• Gaming sales continue to increase by a compound annual rate of 19.1%. Sales
surpassed 23 billion USD in 2003 and are estimated to reach 56 billion USD by
2008. In turn, revenues reached approximately $6 billion in 2004 and are
projected to reach $14.3 billion by 2009.iv

Popularity

Gaming has emerged as the preeminent form of entertainment among 18 — 35 year-
old males. Consequently, the gaming industry now rivals traditional entertainment
industries, including the film and music industries in terms of growth, revenue, and
consumption.v

• For example, the gaming industry is growing by 20% compared to 7.5%, 7.1%
and 2% growth rates in the film, television, and music industries during the same
period. Furthermore, AC Nielson predicts that within four years, the film industry
will be just one-third the size of the computer game marketvi

• Game users typically spend 20-30 hours per week on online games and more than
20% of online gamers identify themselves as residents of virtual worldsvii

• The stereotype of the lonely gamer spending long hours in social isolation is no
longer tenable. While some games are played by singular or a group of isolated
players, computer gaming now is increasingly social with the growth of Local

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Area Network (LAN) games played in Internet cafes and the expansion of
massively online multiplayer games (MMOG). Users are now interacting with
others in the game (i.e. guilds), online in other cyber media (i.e. web sites,
message boards and social networking sites) and in cybercafes providing a fertile
ground for terrorist activities.

• It is widely thought that online gaming may have a similar cultural, political, and social
influence on today’s gamers that music, religion and politics had on earlier generations/“

Global Patterns in Game Play: Time Spent, Social Interaction and Reach

Games consume a great deal of time and effort by a significant number ofplayers around the world. In a
study done by Nick Yee at Stanford University on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games
(MMORPG) users, 50% of the 30,000 respondents worked full time, with only 22% as full-time students.
The average age of the respondents was 26.5, (women tended to be older than me) and on average the
respondents spent 22.71 hours per week in their chosen MMORPG, a time involvement which suggests
that there is a substantial level of emotional investment in the MMORPG environment.

Global Market Counter-Strike is considered the most popular online first-person shooter
(FPS) game in the world with the more than 200,000 players playing
simultaneously and contributing more than 5.5 billion minutes of playing
time each month on the official network consisting of more than 100,000
servers. Counter-Strike is played extensively throughout Central,
Southeast, and Southwest Asia in addition to the core U.S., European and
Asian markets.

Palestinian Reportedly, more than 25% of children between the ages of 6 and 17 in the

Market Palestinian territories access the Internet through Internet centers that have

emerged in refugee camps, rural villages, and urban areas. Palestinian
Internet center managers and computer lab owners have reported that most
children spend most of their time playing online games, including “pro-
Arab” games like Special Force and Under Siege.

Southwest &
Southeast
Asian Markets

Kuma Games produces and distributes episodic games depicting real life
military operations. These games are played throughout Southeast and
Southwest Asia. During the height of media coverage on Middle East
networks like Al-Jazeera, 20% of Kuma’s total audience originated from
the Middle East region with significant amounts of game traffic coming
from Egypt and a notable number of players originating from Iran and Iraq.
\See: End Note xxvii]

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Functionality of Online Games

Games are platforms on which participants may communicate, coordinate,
socialize, train, learn, simulate, experiment, build, proselytize and even barter virtual
goods. Such functions indicate that the line between the ‘virtual’ world and the ‘real’
world is blurring, and to some users may be non-existent.

• That virtual worlds are becoming synonymous with the real world, provides and
interesting opportunity for terrorists to conduct a range of activities with
anonymity.

As virtual worlds become more popular, pervasive, and sophisticated, so too will
terrorist opportunities to exploit them.

• For example, as gaming becomes increasingly popular across multiple
demographics and access to various gaming platforms increases (i.e. access to
personal computers, Internet cafes, and mobile platforms), it will become easier
for terrorist groups to reach core target audiences. For these reasons, many expect
that terrorist groups will increasingly leverage online and computer based games
to support their activities in the future.

Propaganda and Influence

Terrorist groups and sympathizers could use games to twist historical context,
demonize enemies, disrupt the social moral compass, and desensitize users to
violenceF

• Games designed to appeal to terrorist sympathizers leverage salient political
themes and typically exploit “pro-Arab” and “anti-Israel” sentiment. Such games
attract players because they provide them with a consonant message and an
opportunity to take part ‘virtually’ in “resistance movements.”x

• Special Force, developed by Hezbollah, plays on the common themes of “Israeli
occupation” and “Palestinian victimization,” and offers players the opportunity to
‘fight back’ by ‘digitally’ reenacting various elements of the Intifada. For
instance, the introductory level of Special Force involves target practice and
shooting exercises, using images of Israeli Generals as the mark. Later levels
involve the ‘digital’ reenactment of battles that have occurred between the IDF
and Palestinians during the Israeli occupation.53

• Special Force was intentionally designed by Hezbollah to reinforce and
disseminate the group’s values, concepts, and ideas among supporters and
sympathizers, while giving passive supporters the opportunity to experience the
viscera of the front linesxii Special Force is available in Arabic, French, English,
and Farsi, and thus is widely available to traditional Hezbollah audiences and

others.xiii

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• Under Ash and its sequel Under Siege were published by the Syrian company Dar
al-Fikr. The player takes the role of a Palestinian national opposing the occupiers
from Israel. Under Siege, in particular, is based on actual events, but is presented
from the Syrian perspective. The game employs visceral imagery and sound,
including scenes of Palestinian children being murdered, summary executions
being held in public streets, high-speed chase scenes and sounds of gunfire and
heart pumping music. The scenes too are designed to evoke outrage and to play
on common themes, including “Israeli occupation,” “Injustice,” and “Revenge”.

• The Iranian Islamic Students Association has also developed an online game,
Commander Bahman, in which users play the role of a special-forces unit tasked
with protecting Iranian nuclear capabilities from American aggression. This
game was developed in direct response to a Kuma Reality Games release, Assault
on Iran. Kuma has subsequently developed another installment, Assault on Iran,
Pt.3, in the hopes that this international dialogue, sparked by the depiction of
global affairs in the game space, will continue. Assault on Iran, Pt. 3 is planned
be released in Arabic, English, and Farsixiv

Video games make particular assumptions within their environment that can
transcend a specific message to users.

• For example, the games Ummah Defense and Ummah Defense II (free for
download on the Internet), are set in the future, based on the premise that at some
point in history Muslims will have conquered the world and killed or converted
all non-Muslims. Users act as a member of the Intergalactic Muslim Council,
working to protect Earth from the sole disbeliever and in his army of robots sent
to destroy the Earth - it was necessary to construct robots as all other humans
believe in Islam. The overarching message is that establishment of the caliphate
is possible.xv Playing games within this context allows users to experience this
reality in a sensory way that makes the message “real.”

Video games are an ideal influence platform because they incorporate imagery,
narrative, camaraderie, and action.

• This combination works because advanced imagery and graphics can be used to
engage the senses, storylines can be used to provide a context and group goals,
camaraderie in the form of multiple players facilitates higher levels of
engagement, and action in the form of participation is requiredxvi

Radical groups are using gaming platforms to propagate religious ideology. This
can take place in a number of different ways. For example, a FPS game can help
demonize a declared enemy, while educational games can offer manipulated religious
doctrine as scripture.

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• For example, Innovative Minds, Inc. has developed a series of six ‘multi-level’
downloadable games, entitled “Islamic Fun” which are aimed at “teaching
children between the ages of 5 and 11 years of age about Islam.” “Islamic Fun” is
marketed as a “faith-based” alternative to “secular” games and includes many age
appropriate game titles, including Fishing Bear, Tree Hop, and Two Bunny Race.
However, embedded in this game package is another game, entitled The
Resistance, in which users assume the role of farmers in Southern Lebanon who
join the Islamic Resistance against invading Israelis.xvii Many believe that these
types of games encourage anti-Semitism and promote terrorism xviii

Communications

Games provide attractive communications channels for terrorist groups and sympathizers
because in-game conversations often are difficult or impossible to monitor.

• Many games contain capabilities like VoIP, chat, and file transfers that allow real-time
communications to take place, and few sites monitor such traffics or keep log files as
would traditional Internet service providers (ISPs).

• Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) are ideal locations to support secure
terrorist communications because of the enormous scale on which they are played. At a
given time thousands of subscribers can be connected to a virtual world on various game
servers. Potentially complicating matters are that some games can be hosted by gamers
on their own dedicated server or PC.

• In-game communication channels would be difficult to collect by current Internet
control methods, because speech and text mingles with data from the game. This
increases the chances that authorities will overlook communications they would
normally prohibit.

Recruitment

Online gaming can serve as a recruiting tool. This has already proven true in the
US, as the US Army found that 28% of players logging on to play its, “America’s Army”
online game also visited the corresponding recruitment site.

• Monitoring strategy games like Counterstrike can be an effective way to track
individual skill levels in firearms, tactical operations, group cohesion, leadership,
etc. This information can then be used by interested parties to evaluate
qualifications for military or insurgent recruitment.

• Participation in virtual communities can facilitate off-line activity. Members of
terrorist groups could enter or monitor online game environments with the intent
of translating ‘virtual’ skills and actions into real world commitments and
activities.

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Training and Simulation

Games can supplement field training by familiarizing recruits with the tactics,
weaponry, and skills needed to conduct operations. Military type games can be used to
help acquire skills in team work, communications, leadership, and operational tactics.
This trend is likely to manifest itself in the near future, as games are increasingly
leveraging real time data from the battle field.

• Culturally accurate games can help foreign terrorists avoid profile raising
mistakes and assist in assimilation.

• Combat simulators, such as those developed by BBN Technologies as part of the
Pentagon’s DARWARS project, are used to help soldiers bound for Iraq prepare
for combat. Among the offerings: DARWARS Ambush! a combat simulation
game designed to train up to 24 soldiers at a time in military convoy operations.xix

• Increasingly realistic virtual environments further blur the lines between the
virtual and real worlds - these environments create immersive environments that
draw users into the game world. This results in more true-to-life training grounds,
and enhances a game’s underlying message as the user experience becomes more
immersive.

• The US military is currently using games as a tool to equip personnel with
training in numerous key areas including, tactical planning, mission rehearsal,
incorporating lessons learned, and tactical language training. xx

• COTS programs used to develop combat simulators are inexpensive, widely
available, and could offer terrorist groups the opportunity to simulate attacks prior
to their execution. Such programs could enable fairly accurate damage
assessments and provide insight into necessary course correction to limit risk and
unintended consequences associated with a particular attack. For example, the
Maya Unlimited fluid simulation software, available for $159, offers users the
ability to re-create the mushroom cloud caused by a nuclear explosion. Users can
control the influence of fuel and other attributes, and add key ingredients such as
temperature scale, buoyancy, dissipation, turbulence, and diffusion.

• Games could also be used as part of the attack plan itself. With the rise of mobile
gaming, terrorist groups can use the platform to its advantage; instead of planting
a bomb near a crowd of people, for example, it can place one at a random location
and lead game players to the bomb.

This is speculative based on flash mobs and mobile gaming use. Flash mobs are groups of people that
converge in public places for brief periods of time and dissipate quickly there after. Flash mobs have
occurred worldwide and are frequently organized around political protest efforts. The French riots of 2005
were organized largely through flash mob efforts. Paired with mobile scavenger hunting location based or
mixed reality games, flash mobs have the potential to concentrate people rapidly at the site of the “win.”
See stories on flash mobs: http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340.L-3056735.00.html;
http://in.rediff.com/netguide/2003/oct/05flash.htm. Some examples of location based games include:

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Fundraising

Newer games offer greater opportunities for terror groups to raise and distribute
funds. Funds used in online games can be uploaded in one location and downloaded in
another, which is particularly easy if multiple users can access a single ID.

• The goods, services, and currencies of virtual worlds have real-world impact. In
2005, E-bay category 1654, “Internet Games,” had $30 million dollars in sales in
the United States. Similarly in Asia, real-cash virtual item trade exceeds $100
million annually.xxi Current estimates indicate that intangible goods in digital
worlds are worth $1-$2 billionxxii

• Because users are able to create their own content in games, entrepreneurs profit
in real-world dollars by selling professional services or goods. One virtual real
estate mogul in Second Life makes nearly $150,000 per year in real-world dollars.

• Fund raising efforts are already happening in virtual worlds. In 2006, American
Cancer Society (ACS) held its second virtual Relay for Life in Second Life. ACS
collected over $40,000 and attracted nearly 1,000 participants.xxiii

• Individuals organize to raise funds for charitable efforts. After Hurricane Katrina,
some individuals banded together to hold live fundraising events in Second Life to
help victimsxxiv

• Organizations could use virtual worlds as a vehicle for generating income. While
the money raised might not be enough to fund a sizable organization, it could be a
revenue source for smaller cells.

Ease of Production of Games

The growing availability of middleware or mods drastically lowers the barriers of
entry for game development, allowing almost anyone to become a game builder.
Middleware products are available for a marginal fee (usually the cost of a game) or
can be downloaded free from the Internet.

• Mods are typically used to create additional content to games (partial

conversions) or new games (total conversions). Popular middleware products
include 3D world building packages such as Genesis 3D, Quake, Unreal, and
Half-Life; multiplayer adventure games like Aurora Toolkit; and systems for
handling massively multiplayer games like BigWorld, Butterfly.net, and
Terazona.

Botfighter series, Gunslinger series, Mogi, UnderCover series, Swordfish and Torpedo Bay, ConQwest,
The Journey II, and Treasure Hunt. See a research paper of mixed reality mobile gaming:
http://research.microsoft.com/~shahrami/papers/tech02.pdf#search='mixed%20realitv%20gaming.

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• Middleware products have been used to create popular commercial games such as
Counterstrike (Half-Life) and America’s Army (Unreal); as well as several games
of a more questionable nature, including Ethnic Cleansing (Genesis 3D), Under
Ash (Genesis 3D) and Special Force (Genesis 3D).

Mods not only provide a developmental shortcut, but also enable game producers to
“improve ” existing games, whereby increasing their popularity.

• Mods can be used to transform existing games. For example, unidentified gamers
modified the FPS game Battlefield 2 enabling players to take on the role of
extremists whose home village in Iraq suffered collateral damage during a
fictional US operationxxv

• Another prime example of the use of mods is the CD-ROM game Ethnic
Cleansing, produced by Resistance Records, to promote the white supremacy
agenda. The game promotes the killing of “sub-humans” (other races and Jews)
in a setting similar to New York City. The game is patterned after popular
mainstream video games Quake and Doom, turning racially motivated violence
into a form of “entertainment.” Users are given the option of assuming the role of
a KKK Member or a Skinhead.

• Kuma Games develops free, episodic games for their users based on recent real
world events. With the assistance of the Valve’s Source game engine,xxvi modular
software that provides enhancements in several key areas of game production,
including character animation, advanced AI and real-world physics, Kuma is
easily able to produce immersive, realistic games in little time. Additionally, in
an effort to make the games more easily downloaded by users in the Middle East,
Kuma has developed a Persia Disk that can easily be copied and redistributed.
Using the disk, once the game design is loaded onto the user’s PC, no Internet
connection is required to play, although a low-band connection is adequate to
attain new episodes.xxvii

• Terrorist groups likely could reduce development costs further by soliciting
sympathizers with the required skill sets to work for free or reduce costs as their
contribution to the Jihad analogous to how religious game developers operate to
reduce costs.xxviii College students provide a plausible target for recruitment.

Machinima is film making within the real-time 3D virtual environment of a video
game. It’s the use of video game graphics technology to create animated films.
Machinima combines aspects of film making, animation and game design to transform an
interactive medium, a video game, into a production studio complete with sets, props,
special effects and virtual actors. All that is required is a game and a desktop computer.^
Like traditional movies, machinima allows for character development and the creation of
plot lines.

t For a machinima example that uses military characters and explains machinima, see
Machinima! With Officer Dan at http://www.machinima.com/films.php?id=4676

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• Software to make machinima productions costs little or nothing. Websites like
www.fraps.com provide trial versions of machinima software, such as the one
used to produce “Sonic Jihadxxix,” and allow users to create quality machinima
productions. Productions, such as “Sonic Jihad,” which are made with trial
versions of machinima software frequently place their websites directly in the
center of the screen in order to drive people to their sites to purchase full versions.
Productions like “Sonic Jihad” not only can promote propaganda, but direct
sympathizers who wish to create similar productions to the software needed.

• In 2005, a machinima, “French Democracy” depicted the views of the minorities
during the French riots. The well-developed story carries a political message
allowing one to sympathize with the minority position in the riots. The
machinima was produced on November 22, just 5 days after the riots ended.

• Similar to using mods to develop games, real-time video capture software, like
Fraps, allows users to record video of the activity taking place on one’s PC,
during game play, for example. Once downloaded, this software “records” to
capture audio and video bits up to 1152x864 and 100 frames per second.xxx The
use of such software in games like Kuma/Wars would allow users to develop
machinima productions of recent combat events adding their own twist.

Features of Fraps Real-time Video Capture Software

Screen capturing - Digital images taken by the software recording the visible
items on the monitor as a screenshot in formats such as BMP, PNG and JPG.

Real-time video capturing - Digital images taken by the software recording the
visible items on the monitor (or another visual output device) over an extended
period of time, as the action is taking place, to form a video file.

Screencast/Screen Recording - Digital recording of a computer screen output,
often containing audio narration.

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

CHAPTER 2

lu ■

Compiled photos from Global Islamic Media Front s
Quest tor Bush ■ The Night of Bush Capturing Game

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Games: A Look at Emerging Trends, Uses, Threats and Opportunities in Influence Activities

Chapter Introduction

Games are an effective influence platform because they promote both “active ” and
“passive” learning, and are highly attractive pursuits for specific target audiences.

Games, by nature, are learning experiences. Playing a game involves building skills
in order to advance to new levels in the game.

• Traditional teaching and conditioning methods are used to teach and develop the
player.

• Learning is central to a player’s in-game success.xxxi

Learning in games can be transparent (e.g. helping to refine a player’s shooting
technique) or hidden (developing a predisposition in a player toward a particular cause or
message).

• The latter often involves the promotion within the game of a particular set of
values or ideologies via the storyline or setting, and the use of emotional “tools”
to elicit particular reactions.

Finally, games can be effective influence platforms because they are popular,
captivating players and encouraging them to return for more.

Video games are “weaponized” texts, or disrupters of psychic stability.. .I mean to say
that games perform what Pierre Bourdieu calls “symbolic violence”—in other words, that
“gentle, invisible form of violence, which is never recognized as such.”. Like
educational institutions, video games are instances of symbolic violence in the sense that
they inflict themselves on players. The world of the video game is nothing more than the
on-screen rendering of programmed instructions and decrees. Players are “schooled” by
an aggressive bombardment of pixellated images and sounds. Every moment is a direct
imperative, an attack that demands a response.

-- Matt Garite,

The Ideology of Interactivity (or, Video Games and the Taylorization of Leisure) XXX11

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Active Learning

Games can serve as a place to learn, imparting knowledge and teaching skills. The
structure of games promotes learning through a rewards system.

• Often, games require action without expertise, forcing players to experiment and
learn.

• Games also can reinforce previous learning experiences by allowing players to
interact with issues, ideologies, products and events in active and passive ways.

Knowledge and Skills

Games can serve as a place to learn, imparting knowledge and teaching skills.

• During prehistoric times, hunting games were used to teach young people how to
handle dangerous situations in the wild.

• Today, games are often more complex, involving dynamic platforms,
sophisticated storylines, and diverse goals.

• Individuals progress through an entire learning cycle when playing a game,
beginning with openness to new situations and rules, then taking certain actions
and reflecting on them, and finally “learning” how to operate successfully in the
game (see Figure 1).

• Often the learning process continues outside the game in such ways as
conversations with friends, participation on fan websites, reading about the
games, and player meet-ups onlinexxxiii

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Exhibit 2-1: The Learning Frameworkxxxiv

Application of the Learning Framework to Games

1. Openness: When an individual plays a game, he is open to its structures, rules and
messages.

2. Action: By nature, games present a problem that a player must address and act on in
order to advance in the game. Actions must take place within the rules and value
systems of the game (in this diagram, the game is represented by the box
“Environment”) in order for the player to participate and move forward in the game.

a. Manifestation: The player’s desired outcome in the game is to succeed and
mitigate losses.

b. Influencing the external environment: The player takes action to try to
influence the course of the game.

c. Coaching: The rules of the game provide guidelines on how to take action and
what is permissible and acceptable.

d. Instinctive learning: When quick action is required, instincts will play a role in
how play is performed. This often includes a mix of: lessons learned from past
experiences, a player’s personal values system, and physical and emotional
reactions. This part of learning is generally subconscious.

e. Nurturing the individual: Assessments about how well the player is playing
the game are made frequently throughout the game.

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f. Conditioning: The player’s actions result in an outcome, which can be the
desired outcome, a different yet positive outcome, or a negative outcome.

3. Reflection: In the wake of the outcome, a player consciously or subconsciously
makes an assessment about what worked, what didn’t work, what could be
improved, and how to take action differently in the future.

4. Unlearning to Openness: Reflection enables the “unlearning” of decisions and
actions taken in the previous game and creates openness to trying again to
succeed. This completes one learning cycle and starts another.

The structure of games promotes learning through a rewards system.

• Video and other games teach a “correct” course of action by providing immediate
feedback on a player’s initial action. As discussed with regard to the learning
cycle, players then reflect on their initial action in an effort to achieve a better
outcome the next time they are faced with a similar situation in the game.

Learning = Action + Feedback + Reflectionxxxv

• Players advance to higher levels in games by learning appropriate responses
during earlier stages of the game. Games have reinforcement and punishment
mechanisms such as gaining or losing points for desired responses (i.e. operant
conditioning)xxxvi

• The chainsaw model of video games visually represents the accumulation of
knowledge and/or skills that leads to advancement to a higher level in a game.
Players move through a series of micro-challenges that, when combined, lead to
advancement.

Exhibit 2-2: The Chainsaw Model of Video Game Story Structure™"

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Games often require action without expertise, forcing players to experiment and
learn.xxxvl11 Such learning experiences often involve role exploration, project execution,
and operating within a game producer’s version of facts and history.

• Role exploration - or choosing a virtual persona and acting out this role in the
game - teaches players the challenges and limits of that role.xxxix

• Multi-player games which require numerous individuals to carry out a mission
teach players how to become leaders and execute a collaborative project in its
entirety.ixl

• Immersion in a game producer’s version of facts or history teaches players how to
operate in the defined socio-political environment. This can result in player
empathy toward a particular cause.xli

Applied Teaching Tool

Games can reinforce previous learning experiences by allowing players to interact
with issues, ideologies, products and events in active and passive ways.

• Studies have shown that players who interact with messages, products and the like
have higher recollection levels of those messages.

• Active participation elicits emotional responses, helping the message to resonate
more strongly with the player.

• Often used following other types of learning about a specific environment,
simulations teach users how to operate in environments via virtual participation in
them. Effective simulation experiences result in particular responses when
players are faced with similar situations in the physical world.

Schools, private businesses and governments are investing in simulations,
advergames and in-game promotions to reach and teach their respective target
audiences xlu

• Schools are increasingly using games in their curricula. Students report feeling
like learning is not “work” with games, and spend more time with the subject
matter than if they were reading a book about the topic. Some studies indicate
that students retain information from games more effectively than from books
because of the “immersion” factor of games.

• Many companies believe advergaming is an effective way to market and “brand”
their product. Advergames target younger, tech-savvy consumers.xliii Yankee

* For example, in World of Warcraft players learn how to plan and execute missions. Players meet prior to
a mission to develop a strategy, determine what roles they will play and how they will execute them. Often
leaders keep statistics on their players. Following the mission, individuals will review the mission’s
success and player performance.

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Group estimates the in-game advertising market will reach $732 million annually
by 2010.xllv Already, the names or products of multinational companies such as
Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Panasonic, Viewsonic, Motorola, Castrol, Nokia, McDonalds,
Sprite, LG and HP have appeared in international game titles in an effort to
promote their brands and products.xlv

• Governments are using games for military training. Games such as Delta Force
2, Steel Beasts and Falcon 4.0 have been adapted by various armed forces to
enhance their relevance to military training. Singapore Armed Forces’ Defense
Science and Technology Agency has been adapting the games Chain of Command
and Operation Flashpoint to suit its needs. The Singapore School of Combat
Engineers and School of Armor have modified Operation Flashpoint to their
specific missions, including the use of booby traps, wire and minesxlvi

Passive Messaging and Conditioning

The structure of games promotes winning through a set values system. The strong
emotions that games can elicit deepen these learning experiences.

• Games that elicit strong emotions can predispose a player toward a particular
viewpoint or cause, or provoke specific reactions on the part of the player.

Value Systems

The structure of games promotes winning through a set values system.

• Players often must adopt a specific set of values in order to achieve a “win” or
positive outcome in the game. Sometimes, these values form the context of the
game.

• Ethnic Cleansing, which was released in 2002 by Resistance Records, is an
example of a game in which a particular set of “values” form the context of the
game and players are rewarded for adhering to this value system. Players choose
the role of a Skinhead or KKK member, and “take out” as many black, Latino and
Jewish avatars as possible. Racial slurs are made throughout the game, which
also portrays negative stereotypes.xlvii

• Teams or “clans” in massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
which are formed at advanced levels of games to allow players to achieve greater
status, ranking and advancement , adopt their own value systems, rules and
cultures.xlviii At this level, players can only be successful by adopting the clan’s
modus operandi.

Emotions

The strong emotions that games can elicit deepen learning experiences. xl,x

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• Video game play is rich in sensory experiences, engaging motor skills and
promoting visual experiences like artistic characters and a compelling
environment and auditory experiences like music.

• Advancements in graphics have made characters and settings look more “real”,
strengthening the emotions they induce.

• The rewards system of games that ultimately results in a reward or punishment for
the player, also can elicit formidable emotions. Rewards and punishments are
central to “stimulus-reinforcement” learning and “stimulus-response” learning/

Games that elicit strong emotions can predispose a player toward a particular

viewpoint or cause, or provoke specific reactions on the part of the player.

• For example, the game, Dafur Is Dying, evokes sympathy for the people of
Darfur. Players assume the role of a refugee from Dafur facing overwhelming
challenges and dangers. If the player is captured in the game by militiamen, a
caption on the screen reads: “You will likely become one of the hundreds of
thousands of people already lost to this humanitarian crisis,” and includes a
warning about the possibility of rape.li

• The white supremacy propaganda game Ethnic Cleansing mentioned above
includes blaring racist hate music to help the game’s message resonate on an
emotional level with players/“

• Foreign Ground, a first-person training game, has been developed for the
Swedish military to simulate peacekeeping operations. Graphic images of local
conditions provoke an emotional response and develop peacekeepers’ sense of
duty (see Figure 3).

Exhibit 2-3: Scenes from Foreign Ground1111

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The “Return for More” Factor

Games are effective influence platforms because they can captivate and engage
target audiences, and encourage “return ” learning and conditioning.

• Games can provide significant social interaction, as well as the opportunity to live
alternative virtual lives.

• Games can be additive and lead to dependencies by players.

Engagement

Games can engage and captivate players by providing the opportunity to live
alternative virtual lives.

• Players can live a virtual existence as someone of a different race, religion, sex or
socio-economic status.

• The limitations and challenges in players’ real lives can be erased.

• Studies show that 20 percent of virtual game players feel like they live in virtual
worlds.liv

Games provide significant social interaction easily and enjoyably.

• Many of today’s entertainment games allow players to go beyond shooting and
“lone soldiering” to developing relationships with other players.

• In fact, games nurture social networks similar to those in the physical world.

• Games also fulfill a need for “third places” - a place that is neither home nor
worklv — to meet and interact with others.

• Games can be more effective social connectors than other media because they
provide significant breath and depth of experience, combining the visceral and the
social while encouraging exploration and discovery.lvi

• Games can result in social networking outside of games: serious game players
often are part of a game “fan club” or trade tips with other players on websites or
in person.

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Addiction

Games can be additive and nurture dependencies among players.

• Emotional, social and technical rewards from play sometimes result in an
addiction to a particular game.

• Many MMORPG players spend over 20 hours per week in-game. For some
players, participation in MMORPGs becomes an obligation, with MMORPGs
representing a “society” with a unique culture and rules. Interactions and
obligations online often mirror those in real life, blurring the line between the
virtual and real world.lvii

• Addiction recovery programs have been established to help wean people off of
video game dependencies.lviii

Chapter Addendum

As a result of the research material acquired and reviewed for this report, SAIC is
well-positioned to assist the client populate its games database with articles and other
literature on:

- why games represent good influence platforms, including sociology and
psychology literature

- existing and soon-to-be-released games on the market internationally and
for specific target audiences

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CHAPTER 3

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Chapter Introduction

Games can serve sophisticated purposes beyond entertainment, providing terrorist
organizations with a powerful medium analogous to the internet to support its
operational objectives. Games have already been exploited by terrorist extremists and
sympathizers. Emerging trends within the game space suggest greater opportunities will
exist for future exploitation enhancing a range of terrorist operations, from supporting
strategic propaganda and influence activities, to more highly instrumental uses such as
communication, fundraising and recruitment.lix Such activities warrant concern given the
increasing popularity of gaming which seems to be transcending age, gender and cultural
boundaries.

Potential Uses of Games for Terrorist Activities

• Propaganda and Influence - Terrorists and sympathizers use games to twist historical
context, demonize enemies, disrupt the social moral compass, and propagate ideology.

• Communications - Games provide attractive communications channels for terrorist groups
and sympathizers because in-game conversations often are difficult to monitor.

• Recruiting - Online gaming can serve as a recruiting tool. For example, the United States
Army found that 28% of players logging on to play its America’s Army online game also
visi ted the corresponding recruitment site.

• Simulation, Practice and Team Management - Games can supplement field training by
familiarizing recruits with the tactics, weaponry, and skills needed to conduct operations
and planning.

• Money Laundering and Fundraising - Funds used in online games can be uploaded in one
loc ation and downloaded in another by using a single avatar to which multiple people have
access via ID and password. Alternately, virtual “sweat shops” can be organized to

Several plausible scenarios exist where terrorist organizations could leverage the
power of the gaming medium to achieve operational goals with minimal training and
expertise. This paper will outline the current capabilities and potential scenarios by game
genre demonstrating how a terrorist organization might exploit the game space. The
extent to which games can be used by terrorist groups to supplement their other activities
depends on a variety of factors, to include:

• Internet connectivity of game users

• Cost and availability of hardware and/or software required to play game

• Level and kind of interaction between players that the game allows

• Ease of use of game

• Degree of game skills transferability to real-world activity

• Degree of realism in game design (such as graphics and programming sophistication)

• Barriers to game production

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The effectiveness of carrying out terrorist activities through games varies by genre.
Each of the scenarios presented offers the most effective use for its respective type of
game. The following chart gives an overview of each game genre and its effectiveness
for enabling a specific terrorist objective:

Exhibit 3-1: Best Uses of Game Genres in Influence Efforts8

Genre of Game Enable Communication Simulation and Training Money Laundering/ Fund Raising Propaganda and Influence Tool for Recruitment
First-person Shooter o « o «
Educational • o « • o
Simulation m m m m o
Mixed or Alternate Reality • m m o o
MMORPGs or MUVEs • m m • m
Strategy Games o « « •

Ideal or good use

o Could be used but requires moderate effort and would be only somewhat effective
Could be used but would not be an effective choice from a cost/benefit standpoint

Note: THE SCENARIOS PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER ARE FICTITIOUS. They
represent plausible uses of games for terrorist influence, planning, recruitment and
training purposes.

§ A qualitative assessment on the effectiveness of different game genres in enabling terrorist operations was
based on information gleaned from research, industry conferences, and gaming experts.

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Possible Terrorist Use of Different Game Genres

First-person Shooter Games

First-person shooter (FPS) games involve the player taking on a first-person character
role, giving him a sense of “being there.” These games usually pit players against each
other or the computer to test their strategies and reflexes in a static, arena-like
environment.

• Some of the more popular FPS games include Doom, Half-Life, Counterstrike,
Unreal Tournament, Halo, Night of Bush Capturing and Under Ash.

Exhibit 3-2: A view from the FPS game Half-life as the opponent is shot. Ix

Producers often sophisticatedly incorporate various weapons in their FPS games. For
example, Alliance1x1 allows the user to choose an historic or contemporary weapon for use
in game play. The game accurately portrays the benefits and drawbacks of the chosen
weapon, as well as the correct velocity and trajectory of the ammunition.

First-person Shooter Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. A Sudanese Islamic extremist group develops a FPS game as a
tool to influence audiences, train forces and raise funds. The game portrays local
warlords as corrupt. Players must take up arms to help defend their towns.

• The player must choose the correct weapon to fight the enemy and calculate when
to reload the weapon, as well as how to move through the town safely and whom
to trust. If the player shoots a civilian, the civilian will make a commotion and in
moments, the player will be shot - always.

• At the end of the game, when the player has either won or lost a round, a message
reads, “Real heroes are those who take action in everyday life. What have you
done to support your brothers and sisters today? Search the Net for the truth and

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join the cause at www.youcanbeaterrorist.com, or by texting a message to cell
phone number (98)22-123-4567 that includes the best way to contact you.” The
game also offers postal and PayPal addresses if players would like to contribute
financially to the cause.

MMORPGs and Virtual Worlds

Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) are online computer
role-playing games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a
virtual world. MMORPGs are distinguished from Role Playing Games by their
“persistence”, i.e. the virtual world continues to exist and evolve even when the player is
not playing the game.

• Leading titles include EverQuest, Star Wars Galaxies, World of Warcraft,
Lineage, Mu, and The Legend of Mir.

Guild In-game « Team at Worklxl

“.. .A guild is a collection of players who come together to share knowledge, resources,
and manpower. To run a large one, a guild master must be adept at many skills:
attracting, evaluating, and recruiting new members; creating apprenticeship programs;
orchestrating group strategy; and adjudicating disputes. Guilds routinely splinter over
petty squabbles and other basic failures of management; the master must resolve them
without losing valuable members, who can easily quit and join a rival guild. Never mind
the virtual surroundings; these conditions provide real-world training a manager can
apply directly in the workplace.”

--Taken from:

You Play World of Warcraft? You’re Hired!

by John Seeley Brown and Douglas Thomas

Wired Magazine

While MMORPGs involve undertaking missions that are eventually “won” or “lost,”
virtual worlds focus on daily activities and social interactions.

• Virtual world environments allow users to communicate and participate in
activities simultaneously with other users regardless of the physical distance
between them.

• Typically producers establish a virtual world and allow users to develop space and
design items within the world.

RPGs require players to undertake a role and play out a narrative in simulated 'worlds' with pre-
programmed characters and quests. Players can customize their characters and then interact with other
players to complete goals or quests. RPGs have been produced using both first-person and third-person
perspectives. Some popular examples of this genre are Ultima, Final Fantasy, Diablo, and Fallout.

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• Many organizations currently use the virtual world of Second Life to conduct
training workshops. A few organizations have used the virtual world to fundraise
and build up groups with similar interests.

• Popular examples of virtual worlds include Second Life, Cybertown, Habbo
Hotel, There, and Virtual Magic Kingdom.

Exhibit 3-3: Users are able to socialize in the virtual space Second Life.lxm

Virtual World Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. A sophisticated terrorist network j oins Second Life. On a
password-protected island of the virtual community, they construct replicas of sites that
they are interested in attacking, and carry out realistic, virtual dry runs of their attacks.

• They consider expanding their network and developing an on-going virtual
terrorist training camp, complete with lessons on the manufacture of bombs, the
proper use of artillery, and basic lessons on the most effective places to shoot a
person to mortally wound them.

Because virtual worlds can serve as a platform for hard-to-trace communications and
private, sometimes password-protected meetings when members are separated by
distance, the terrorist network also utilizes the virtual space for cell management and
meetings.

• The meetings help ensure that members are accounted for on a regular basis while
drawing little attention to the gathering or the members’ association.

• Virtual interaction helps team members become familiar and develop trust with
their teammates long before they meet face-to-face.

• Working together in games or virtual worlds build teams cohesion which
translates into better synergies in real-world situations.

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Frequent interaction with his network helps the leader monitor the level of his team
members’ commitment to the cause and ensure that they do not waver from the group’s
tactical and strategic missions. This also helps the leader prevent members from
“defecting” or otherwise becoming a threat to the cell.

Some of the terrorist network members living in a remote location with Internet access
raise funds via “gold farming,” a virtual form of the “sweat shop.” Their laborers play
games to develop the best, strongest in-game characters which are then sold online for a
profit at sites like E-bay.^

• Because of the games’ entertainment value, terrorist network members encourage
players to “work” for them or raise funds themselves by simply playing games
and then selling items.

Other network associates participate in traditional fundraising. Second Life allows players
to contact the organizer of like-groups, perhaps “humanitarian” organizations that support
particular causes, and send mass emails to encourage participation in special interest
events. Donations are laundered to fund terror activities.

• Terrorist groups are introduced to new sympathizers in this way.

• Other associates hold invitation-only “town meetings” or “group meetings” to
impress viewpoints upon potential recruits.

Virtual Worlds and MMORPGs as a Film Set

Machinima: From Game space to Video

Gaming can serve as a platform for propaganda video production. For example,
machinima is filmmaking within the real-time 3D virtual environment of a video game.
All that is required is a game and a desktop computer.lxiv The combination of machinima
software and a virtual world or video game such as Planet Battlefield, allows one to film
their in-game activities as they play to develop a film which is easily distributed over the
Internet.

Terrorists could easily exploit this technology. Through the use of virtual
characters and audio mash-ups a terrorist could anonymously create machinima films that
included speeches, updates, and briefings. He could use the technology of virtual
communities to create target sites to convey to cell members the next planned attack, use
games to give a visual plan of how the attack should be carried out, and familiarize
teammates with the terrain of the intended site with the technology of Second Life.
Additionally, one could use machinima to create a likable, militant hero with whom their
target audience could identify.

^ During the month of December, SAIC analysts periodically checked e-Bay for characters and items for
sale. It was common to see a high-level character with special skills in World of Warcraft or Everquest on
sale for approximately US$2,000 with only minutes left in the auctions.

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Exhibit 3-4: Planet Battlefield; universal resource link located at:

http://planetbattlefield.gamespy.com/fms/Image.php?image=http://pnmedia.gamespy.com/planetbattlefield.gamespy.com/i

mages/bf2news/shot7.jpg

This technology, combined with audio mash-ups, also could be easily used to
incorporate the voices of key heads of state, the US President for example, into anti-US
propaganda. An original speech could be tampered to craft new, unfavorable messages.

Mixed or Alternate Reality Games

Mixed and alternate reality games involve the use of mobile technology, GPS and
online communication in a real world environment. Because these games exist in both
cyberspace and the real world, the boundaries between virtual and real worlds are
blurred.

Alternate Reality Gaming

Alternate Reality Gaming (ARG), sometimes also called Immersive Gaming or
Interactive Fiction, is an emerging genre of online gaming and one of the first true art and
entertainment forms developed from and exclusively for the Internet. ARGs are played in
real-life spaces under fictitious auspices, usually using a cell phone, camera and/or
handheld GPS device, and the Internet.

• The Internet serves as a “base” for information on the game, calculating
individual or team points, and managing the game.

• Technically, ARGs are a kind of MMORPG because of the important role of the
Internet in the games.

Other than entertainment, ARGs can be produced for education and training,
grassroots activism, and promotional campaigning.lxv

• Titles of popular ARGs include Orbital Colony, Perplex City, Studio Cyphers,
Who is Benjamin Stove, The LOST Experience, and Ocular Effect.

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Password

not registered? click here
trouble toooino in?

Tip of the Day

Exhibit 3-5: Sopranos Alternate Reality Game

Many alternate or mixed
reality games begin as
promotional efforts. Some
of the most elaborate cost
more than $500,000. To
promote the premiere of
the Sopranos, A&E has
developed a mixed reality
game played both on the
Internet and in the real-
world and involving
searches for particular
advertisements and other
“sightings.”

SdpranosJKConnection

■IE RULIS/FAQ DEMO PIECES SIGNUP

Welcome to The Game

If you’re meeting The Sopranos for the first time
or already feel like part of The Famly, here’s
your chance at a big score.

Play The Sopranos A&E Connection Game for a
chance to win $100,000 cash!

THE SETUP: Collect game pieces - in ads online
and in the real world - and score points every
time a new episode of The Sopranos premieres
on A&E.

THE PAYOFF: The top scoring player wins a
suitcase with $100,000 in cash, and everyone
has a chance to win weekly prizes.

Learn more about howto play here.

Play the Game

Try the Demo

sopranos ■!£

WEDNESDAYS 9PM/8C PREMIERES IANHHV10


1. TonysBigRed 3200
2. Chinoski 3100
3. claire 3100
4. marytrew 3100
5. Studdz 3100

1. Goomahs 3100
2. Leviators 3100
3. Mary's People 3100
4 NITRO 3100
5. TonyS 3100

"Study Up" on Season 1 (and find a
piece) at the A&E Store.

Alternate Reality Scenario #1

This scenario is fictitious. A terrorist cell is planning to bomb the US embassy in Jakarta.
Alternate or mixed reality games allow the cell to practice the attack in a realistic
environment with unexpected people, noise, and obstacles.

• During the dry run, cell members communicate through the operations
coordinator, who has access to the Internet and a telephone.

• As the members communicate during the dry run in the real world, it looks to
other people like they are innocently talking on their cell phones, looking at their
palm pilots, or sending text messages to friends. In fact they are calling
headquarters with information on security cameras, wiring, security guards, power
sources, crowd congregation locations and other data, following maps on their
PDAs, and communicating with team members.

• With location tracking devices, the coordinator could track GPS positions of cell
phones or capture team members’ movements with other members’ cameras and
video phones.

• The cell carries out its mission in the same manner that it had practiced using
mixed reality gaming tools.

Alternate Reality Scenario #2

This scenario is fictitious. A terrorist cell wishes to draw a crowd to a specific location in
Seattle, and then distribute a contagious biological agent. A cell develops an alternate
reality game and posts it on the alternate reality game network on the Internet.

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The game encourages parents to take their children to famous landmarks in Seattle and
teach them about Seattle’s history and culture. With each landmark visit, they will gain a
certain amount of points. Whoever collects 1,000 points will receive free entry to a
popular local attraction on a particular day. The cell persuades the Seattle Science
Museum to grant free entry to winners in exchange for publicity.

• Parents and children tour the city, collecting points when they take photos of
particular landmarks or barcodes pre-posted around town. When they collect
1,000 points, they are sent a text message that says they have won a free day at
the Seattle Science Museum on February 15.

• With a near-guaranteed crowd at the Science Museum, cell members distribute
the biological agent on February 15. The “winners” and others there return home
and spread the biological agent to families, friends and schools.

Geocaching

Geocaching is another treasure hunt-
type game. Using hand-held GPS
devices, the players use the information
on the Internet to search for the treasure
in real-life.

• Many times the caches are not
worth a significant amount of
money, but it is the sense of
adventure and accomplishment
that draws people to the game.

To participate in geocaching, one
needs a place to post geocache locations (typically, the Internet), a hand-held GPS
component, and a “treasure.” Typically, geocachers sign up for an account on a
geocaching site. Once on the site, they can search for geocaches that others have left.

• Similarly, they can hide a cache and post its coordinates for other people to find.

• Geocaching’s popularity has spread across Europe and the United States.

• Asia and Africa also are home to many participants.

The caches are ranked in terms of difficulty to find, the terrain, and the type of cache.
Once a cache is found, the geocacher typically will sign a log book at the site or via the
website to inform people that it has been found.

Searching for a Cache


—«■ V* •— t , h,

■nkaiMua —:—-

2 ~
Example 50 Miles from Phoenix, Arizona &

Exhibit 3-6: Screen Shots for Searching for a Cache

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Geocaching Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. A terrorist cell leader has cell members build and transport a
bomb to a detonation spot -a naval watch station between Los Angeles and San Diego -
using geocaching.

1. Cell member #1 buys a component of the bomb near Reno, Nevada. He then
stashes his purchase for the next member to find in south-central Nevada.

2. Cell member #2 knows only the code name of cell member #1. He knows that #1
will be hiding a partially built bomb that requires the component that he has
bought. He watches and waits for a posting by #1 of a location within the
predetermined 100 miles from his base. When #1 posts, he rushes out to find the
cache, takes the developing bomb, adds his component, and takes it to a place
within 100 miles of the south-eastern Utah-Nevada border.

3. Cell member #3 repeats the same process as cell member #2. This process
continues until the bomb is completed.

4. The final cell member takes the bomb to the naval watch station and detonates it
as planned. No red flags were raised because the transport and purchase of the
bomb components were spread out across four states.

Hybrid

•Longmont

Nevada

Denver

Colorado

Theoretical

Geocached

Component

Locations

Glen Cony< n
National r
Recreation Area

K.figs

Canyon

National

Farmington

Death Valley
National Parte*

Grand Canyon
National Park

Bakersfield

Mojave Nation/4

'yreserve/^l

Arizona

Joshua Tree
National Park

Phoenix

Sonoran \
National i
Monument

Tucson Doming ^Cruces

@2007 Google - Map data ©2007 NAVTEQ™ B

Exhibit 3-7: Geocaching Construction and Transportation Scenario

Map 11 Satellite-

Lake City

: mm

New

— Mexico

Angeles

I i.ii.i mi

200 km

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Simulation Games

Simulation games allow gamers a chance to experience and practice a role, activity or
skill in the safety of the virtual world. Popular experiences in these games include flying,
racing, sporting, and building.

• There are many kinds of users of simulation games. For example, to train soldiers
the United States military uses simulation games including flight simulators,
urban warfare simulations, and even communication simulations for deployment
in foreign countries.

• Likewise, terrorist cells could use simulation games for communication,
recruitment and team management as well as for dry-runs of missions.

• Some of the most successful titles include Microsoft Flight Simulator, Gran
Turismo, Madden NFL, and SimCity. * •

Simulation Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. A terrorist leader wants to stage a biological and chemical
attack on several Washington, DC, Metro stations simultaneously. The cell leader would
like to simulate all stages of such an attack including the construction, transportation and
implementation of the plan. Basic benefits of a simulated attack include:

• Cell members use virtual simulation to monitor times and locations to carry out
an attack across multiple stations.

• Cell members use virtual simulation to case the environment prior to the attack in
order to identify and mitigate potential obstacles.

• The cell leader is able to integrate digital imagery and simulated sounds to
acclimate operators in order that they execute the attack more effectively.

Mapping programs such as Google earth can be integrated into online simulation games
to reconstruct streets, buildings and other topographical features near potential attack
sites.

• The cell leader integrates information provided by the city inspector’s office,
including actual building codes and utility locations to generate more accurate
game construction.

A software program that simulates hospital and laboratory environments is uploaded into
the game space. The software is intended for training medical staff and laboratory
technicians about safe handling and storage of dangerous chemicals and biological
agents. It also trains first responders on containing spills. Cell members use this
program to learn safe handling, transport and deployment of the chemical and biological
agents they will use.

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Utilizing actual plans for the Metro system provide insight into tunnel and station
structures. Such plans accurately portray the location and significance of key power
sources, ventilation ducts, and other infrastructure features critical to an effective
biological attack.

• The cell leader utilizes software that scans the structural and architectural plans of
key structures to create a 3-D virtual metro system. He then places the virtual
Metro system on a password protected island in a virtual world and shares the
password with other cell members.

Additional details are entered into the virtual metro station using the same techniques.

Cell members casing the ‘real’ metro system identify security checks, including camera
and video installations and then program their locations.

• By integrating these systems into the simulated metro system, the cell members
identify and overcome obstacles through trial and error. Identifying and inputting
passenger traffic patterns through the Metro system further enables accuracy in
planning and executing attacks.

• The breadth of data and sophistication of the software programs allows the cell to
perform damage assessments against each scenario to help predict which
conditions would be most effective in delivering a chemical or biological
infections.

Through their dry runs, experimentation and practice, the simulation, in its entirety,
determine the optimal operation while maximizing the effectiveness and impact.

As the scenarios are being planned and practice, the cell leader obtains sensors to monitor
cell members’ biological responses. Further, some games have features that allow
leaders to monitor player statistics.

• He hooks the cell members up to these sensors and has them perform various
tasks related to the simulation and monitors their responses.

• This helps the cell member determine the roles of the members based on their
natural responses.

• It also helps identify training or conditioning that must occur before the mission.

• The cell member also tracks player performance and time spent in the simulation
through in-game player performance statistics.

Through the cell’s dry runs, the team becomes comfortable with their roles during the
mission, thereby reducing the margin of error.

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• Each member knows their roles and what their colleagues will be doing
simultaneously.

• They practice scenarios that may occur during the mission and determine how to
act.

• They are now less susceptible to surprises.

Through research and in-game simulation, it is determined that maximum impact can be
expected using three bombers in each of four Metro stations -- Metro Center, Gallery
Place, Union Station, Capitol South, and L’Enfant -- at 8:45 AM on a Tuesday in late-
March. Each cell member knows their responsibilities and the timing on their
movements.

Knowledge-Based Games

Knowledge-based games are a proven success in teaching. Many organizations have
begun to develop video and other games to teach children about their work or mission.

• The United Nations, for example, provides Food Force for free via the UN
website. The game aims to teach children about global hunger and food aid.

• Likewise, Middle Eastern groups have attempted to influence children via games.
The Islamic Fun suite contains the game The Resistance which carries the
following introduction to the game, “You are a farmer in South Lebanon who has
joined the Islamic Resistance to defend your land and family from the invading
Zionists.”

• Other popular titles include Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, Blue’s
Clues: Blues Big Musical and, one of the first educational video games, Oregon
Trail.

Knowledge-Based Game Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade would like to teach children about
the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The group knows that vivid, interactive games are likely
to entertain children while providing an effective education platform. They develop a
game from the Palestinian point-of-view that distorts history by embellishing atrocities
committed by the Israelis, and minimizing culpability of the Palestinians.

• In order to win the game, the young player must answer questions correctly to
save his family and friends.

• A correct answer, as deemed by the sympathizer, gets the child one step closer to
Paradise.

• During each scenario, there are questions about religion, Israeli beliefs and moral
responsibility [see below].

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In-game Quiz. Example:

The Israeli military on the Palestinian border is positioned there to:

A. Provide protection for all non-military citizens crossing the border between Israel and

Palestine regardless of nationality or religion.

B. Protect all Christian non-military citizens.

C. Protect all Christians and kill Muslims, including women and children to
prevent the creation of more Islamic people and to slowly claim land that is not
theirs.

• When children answer three quiz questions right, they progress to the next moral
dilemma in the game - they are presented with a scenario out of “history.” Based
on the scenario presented, they must choose the right moral action to continue on
with their journey towards Paradise [see Interactive Story Example below].

Interactive Story Example:

Israeli soldiers came to your home last night. You saw the men coming in time to take
cover behind the house with your three-year-old brother. Your mother, older sister, and
father where brutally attacked and killed. You and your younger brother survived the
attack.

Later, your neighbor’s brother has come to pay his respects. He is a member of the
Islamic resistance and offers to help you avenge the murder of your family. He assures
you that if you choose to join the jihad you will have the opportunity to fight and should
you sustain any injury, he promises you that your youngest brother will be cared for.

Time is of the essence, however, and the freedom fighters are expecting your decision
tonight. What will you do?

Your options are:

A. Refuse their offer.

You thank the freedom fighter, but resign yourself to live under Israeli occupation. Your
father would understand. You are trying to protect yourself and younger brother,
although you know that the Israeli forces could come again at any time.

B. Not respond to the offer.

Your family has already been destroyed and you do not want to worsen the situation.
Beware, however, as your failure to join the Islamic resistance essentially means that you
are complying with the Zionist occupation.

C. Join the resistance and offer yourself as a suicide bomber.

You begin training today.

You volunteer to serve the jihad as a suicide bomber. This is an honorable post. You will
be rewarded and your family will be protected. You will be a hero in your community.

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When you carry out your mission, you cause the death of the Israeli soldiers who killed
your mother, sister and father. You are celebrated as a hero throughout the
neighborhood. Your brother is taken care of and respected for your sacrifice.

Strategy Games

Strategy games focus on careful planning and resource management in order to
achieve victory. Many of these games can be likened to traditional tabletop war games,
occurring in either a turn-based or real-time situation.

• Real time strategy games (RTS) have become the predominant game in this genre.

• Popular titles in turn-based or real-time strategy games include Starcraft,

Warcraft, Civilization, Master of Orion, Command & Conquer, and Age of
Empires.

Traditionally, strategy games have focused on military movements. In today’s
information technology environment however, strategy games teach business
management and negotiation skills.

• Terrorists might use strategy games to teach new leaders fundraising techniques,
mission planning, and how to manipulate cell members into complete missions.

Strategy Game Scenario

This scenario is fictitious. A terrorist group would like to engage younger players and
distribute propaganda to a segment of the population that will be important in future Jihad
efforts. The group would like to also determine if there are any players that fit the profile
of their recruiters.

The terrorist group develops a game that simulates the duties and camaraderie of their
Islamic brothers in Jihad. The terrorists build into the game lodging, rank and file roles,
benefits of those roles and a weapons structure that allows players with higher status to
have better weapons. The strategy in the game is to not only overcome their enemies (in
this case a corrupt official police force) but they must also become leaders of their
brothers to obtain better weapons and benefits within the group. The setting of the game
begins when a young, strong Iraqi sees neighbor after neighbor murdered by corrupt
police.

• The player must build citizen armies to counter the corrupt police forces.

• The player must train his troops, as well as raise funds.

• He must avoid the crowd turning against him.

The game is distributed for free to reach the greatest number of people and can be played
amongst other members by connecting to the Internet. Members of the terrorist group

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which produced the game also play the game and assess other players’ strategy skills and
commitment to the cause. Cell members engage the players in conversation to determine
information about them and ultimately determine if they would be a good candidate for
recruitment.

Chapter Addendum

This paper discusses possible terrorist use of different types of games in training,
planning, recruiting, communications, fundraising, and propaganda efforts. While all of
these scenarios are possible in many areas of the world, only some may be possible in
areas where Internet connectivity, hardware, or other dependencies are limited.

• A follow-on study might discuss location-specific scenarios in target areas.

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CHAPTER 4

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Chapter Introduction

Emerging trends in the gaming space will have profound effects on the industry,
fueling its expansion into previously untapped markets and affording terrorist
organizations greater opportunities to reach and target core audiences.

• Emerging trends in the gaming industry will be used to the advantage of groups
committed to terrorizing societies to achieve their goals. ^ Terrorist
organizations have already demonstrated the capability to utilize technological
advances to enhance their operations as demonstrated with their extensive use of
the Internetlxvi. As emerging trends come to fruition in burgeoning markets, it is
only a matter of time before terrorist organizations further exploit these trends in
the gaming space for similar purposes.

• The multiple uses of an expanded game space will be numerous, and from the
terrorists' perspective, invaluablelxvu. Terrorist will be able use the enhanced
game space to conduct a range of operations, from supporting strategic
propaganda and influence activities, to more highly instrumental uses such as
communication, fundraising and recruitment. §§

Emerging trends in the gaming industry will continue to drive culture, technology
and creativity in both mature and previously untapped markets. They are expected to
serve as a catalyst for the gaming industry’s rapid growth across age, gender and
cultural boundaries.

• Many emerging gaming trends are enabled by the spread of existing
technologies and the advent of new ones. Three major technological drivers
propelling the gaming industry into untapped markets will be the diffusion of
broadband Internet access, the maturation of the mobile platform, and the fruition
of reliable wireless communication networks such as Third Generation (3G) and
Fourth Generation (4G) networks. Collectively, these trends will improve access
and make online gaming in nascent markets a reality.

• Emerging trends will continue to spur the gaming space ensuring its growth
continues at near exponential rates. Evidence of trends spurring the gaming
industry can be seen in the growth of virtual worlds like Lineage, Everquest,
World of Warcraft (WOW) and Second Life. Hugely popular, these virtual worlds
have evolved due to technological advances such as the evolution in Computing
Processing Units (CPUs) and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), peak throughput

^ Gabriel Weimann makes this point regarding the Internet but his argument can be extended to the game
space due to many similarities between the two mediums. For more information, see Weimann, Gabriel.
"www.terror.net: How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet" United States Institute of Peace, Special
Report 116.

Online gaming has been growing at rapid rates in both mature and nascent markets, in particular within
Virtual Worlds. Evidence can be seen in both the revenue generated by the gaming industry and the sheer
number of gamers which cross cultural, gender and age boundaries.

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power, the spread of broadband Internet access, and the integration of
communication technologies. Newer technologies and emerging consumer usage
patterns are expected to continue to spur growth in the future within the gaming
sector.

• Changes have occurred at a rapid pace within the gaming space and emerging
trends indicate more changes are forthcominglxviii. Many trends will change how
players interact with games and with each other through games as trends come to
fruition. As interactive gaming changed how an entire generation saw itself in
relation to the world in mature markets, it will also likely change how generations
see themselves in nascent markets.''''

• The overall impact of emerging trends in burgeoning markets is expected to
mirror the experience of more mature markets, though marked differences will
exist. Gaming will become a powerful medium, playing an important host to a
range of ordinary human affairs, particularly in the online space. Like the
United States and Asian experience, the line between the virtual and real world
will blur for some and become non-existent for otherslxix However, noticeable
differences will emerge, particularly in consumer usage patterns such as gaming
platforms (i.e. personal computers, consoles, and handheld devices) and access
methods (i.e. Internet Cafes and wireless networks) due to the limitations
associated with existing infrastructures and costs of deploying new ones.* §§§

''' The impact of interactive gaming has profound effects beyond the game space. Evidence can be seen in
how gamers learn, problem solve and relate to the real world. For more information on this trend see Will
Wright's piece "Dream Machines." Wired Magazine, Issue 14.04 April 2006 and the following Cyber-
Influence Conference Series Proceedings - Perspectives from the Entertainment Industry, SAIC, May 2005;
Insights from Silicon Valley: Enabling Technologies. SAIC, March 2006; and Insights from Entertainment
and Gaming: The Convergence of Narrative, Imagery, and Cyber Media, SAIC, September 2006.

® For an excellent analysis on the range of activities that are occurring in online gaming, particularly
virtual worlds, see Castronova, Edward. Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games.

§§§ Market analysts predict strong growth in new regions on different gaming platforms and access methods
in new markets due to existing infrastructures. For more information see, “Global Entertainment and Media
Outlook: 2006-2010. Price Water House Coopers and The 2006 Middle East Telecoms, Mobile and
Broadband Report.

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Emerging Trends

The following trends are expected to significantly extend the gaming space in
mature and nascent markets, creating a powerful medium analogous to the internet for
terrorist organizations to reach and target core audiences.

• While forthcoming trends in the gaming space have been separated into various
sections for analysis, there is considerable overlap between them in that one trend
often enables the other or is dependent on the other to come to fruition.

Broadband Diffusion

The spread of broadband internet access will be a major enabler for online gaming
and its expansion into previously untapped markets.

• One of the most reliable historical indicators for the growth of online gaming is
high speed Internet access.lxx Broadband growth rates in the United States and
Asia have paralleled similar growth rates in online gaming, making the experience
in mature gaming markets informative of what can be expected in growing
markets.

• European, Middle Eastern, and African (EMEA) markets are expected to see the
biggest growth in online gaming with the increased penetration of high speed
Internet access.lxxi Market analysts expect the number of online game participants
in the EMEA market to more than quadruple from 4 million in 2005 to 18 million
in 2010 growing at a compound rate of 35.1%.lxxii The projection of broadband
access is a major reason industry analysts see the EMEA as the fastest growing
market in the gaming industry increasing by a compound annual rate of 13 %
surpassing US$7.6 billion in 2005 and reaching US$13.9 billion by 2010.lxxiii •

• EMEA markets will mirror the expansion of broadband Internet access and online
gaming in more mature markets, however, its adoption will have some marked
differences. Industry analysts expect the growth of high speed Internet to initially
be more limited to Internet Cafes in the Middle East and Africa as opposed to
individual households due to the expense associated with deploying fixed-line or
‘wired’ infrastructures. Consequently, industry analysts expect broadband
wireless solutions to play a larger role in driving gaming in these markets,
particularly with the launch of Third Generation (3G) wireless services.

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Broadband Growth Drives Online Gaming'*™

2002 2003 2004 2005p 2006p 2007p 2008p 2009p 2010p CAGR*
Broadband Subscribers - U.S. 62.0 45.1 38.3 22.2 17.6 15.2 11.5 11.3 9.9 13.10
Online Video Game Subscribers - U.S. 77.8 75.0 50.0 38.1 32.8 24.7 20.8 16.4 14.8 21.7
Broadband Subscribers - Asia 84.6 54.2 62.2 38.3 26.5 27.6 22.4 16.5 13.6 21.2
Online Video Game Subscribers - Asia 133.3 71.4 66.7 50.0 33.3 25.0 32.0 24.2 19.5 26.7
Broadband Subscribers - EMEA 105.8 75.7 113.3 31.2 26.4 20.0 16.3 12.6 10.9 17.1
Online Video Game Subscribers - EMEA 150.0 180.0 78.6 60.0 50.0 50.0 33.3 25.0 20.0 35.1

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Exhibit 4-1: Comparison of Broadband and Online Gaming
Growth Rates in US, Asia and EMEA markets.

The advent of high speed internet access fundamentally transformed gaming into a
truly networked experience making gaming an online social experience.

• Broadband connectivity makes the stereotype of the lonely gamer spending long
hours in social isolation no longer tenable. What once was a relatively stand alone
application on the early personal computers and console gaming platforms is now
becoming increasingly social with the growth of Local Area Network (LAN)
games and the expansion of Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG).
Gaming is now a social experience with users interacting with others in the game
(i.e. teams, clans, and guilds), online in other cyber mediums (i.e. web sites,
message boards and social networking sites), and in cybercafes.

• Evidence is emerging of a budding online gaming culture in Central, Southeast,
and Southwest Asia powered by broadband Internet access. Many older but
enduring titles are being played by gamers at numerous Internet cafes.
Counterstrike is played extensively throughout the region with gamers
participating from Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, United Arab
Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt, Iran, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Also, Kuma Games indicated that 20% of its total audience originated in the
Middle East region with significant amounts of game traffic coming from Egypt

Counter-Strike is considered the most popular online first-person shooter (FPS) game in the world with
the more than 200,000 players playing simultaneously and contributing more than 5.5 billion minutes of
playing time each month on the official network consisting of more than 100,000 servers. Counter-Strike is
played extensively throughout Central, Southeast, and Southwest Asia in addition to the core U.S.,
European and Asian markets.

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and a notable number of players originating from Iran and Iraq during the height
of media coverage on Middle East networks like Al-Jazeera.^®

Exhibit 4-2: Kuma Wars Game Play Distribution in EMEA Markets

Third Generation (3G) and Beyond

The emergence of reliable broadband wireless technology will make mobile gaming
a reality in mature and nascent markets in the mid to long term.

• The movement to 3G networks will facilitate the development of 3D mobile
games and spur demand due to increased access speeds of up to 2 Megabits per
second (Mbps).lxxv While more mature markets in Europe and parts of Asia have
well developed 3G networks, many parts of the world are more limited with 3G
just in its infancy or stuck on older 2G networks.1®

• Similar to the connection between the growth of online games and broadband
Internet access, the maturation of wireless gaming will depend on the spread and
development of high speed wireless networks. Based on anticipated growth in the
wireless sector, EMEA markets are expected to see the biggest growth in wireless
gaming. Market analysts project wireless gaming in the EMEA to expand from
792 million in 2005 to 2.7 billion in 2010, representing a compound annual
growth rate of 27.9%.lxxvi

Kuma Wars is made by Kuma Games, who develops free, episodic games for their users based on
recent real world events. Kuma is easily able to produce immersive, realistic games in little time with the
assistance of the Valve’s Source game engine, modular software that provides enhancements in several
key areas of game production, including character animation, advanced AI and real-world physics.
tttt For an overview of wireless generations, see CNET Review: Quick Guide to 3G Cell Phone Service.
CNET. Available for download at . For more information, also see Mr. Huang's article, "Evolution from 3G
to 4G and Beyond (5G)." June 2005. Available for download at
http://www.daniweb.com/techtalkforums/post180324.html#post180324

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• More mature markets that have achieved reliable, high speed wireless access
represent what the mobile gaming space could look like with the diffusion of
more advanced wireless networks. Mobile gaming has flourished in these markets
with Japan representing the benchmark of mobile gaming where nearly 90% of its
cell phone-owning population plays video games.lxxvii

Wireless Growth Drives Online Gaming

2003 2004 2005p 2006p 2007p 2008p 2009p 2010p CAGR*
Wireless Telephony Subscribers - U.S. -3.6 -33.3 -23.8 -14.0 -24.7 -15.6 -21.4 -9.6 7.5
Wireless game subscribers - U.S. -36.0 14.8 -38.3 -30.9 4.2 -18.9 -26.5 -17.3 37.1
Wireless Telephony Subscribers - Asia -46.4 -6.7 -25.0 -33.3 -25.0 28.0 -24.2 -19.5 12.6
Wireless game subscribers - Asia -28.4 49.7 -72.5 -15.2 -24.3 -18.5 -22.6 -13.5 31.8
Wireless Telephony Subscribers - EMEA 20.0 -56.3 -23.6 -16.7 0.0 -33.3 -25.0 -20.0 4.0
Wireless game subscribers - EMEA 100.0 155.9 79.3 67.9 43.9 32.1 25.5 21.1 37.1

*CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

Exhibit 4-3: Comparison of Wireless Networks and Online
Gaming Growth Rates in US, Asia and EMEA markets.

Fourth Generation (4G) wireless networks will enable reliable high speed wireless
gaming surpassing many of the current broadband access speeds

• Even though 3G has yet to fully emerge
in many parts of the world, more
sophisticated networks are already being
hypothesized and tested to move beyond
3G. Testing in Japan on a 4G prototype
proved data transfer speeds could be
achieved reaching 100 Megabits per
second while moving and 1 Gigabyte
per second while static. lxxviii Such
speeds would enable a user to download
a DVD within one minute.

• A major inhibitor of deploying 3G
networks has been the emergence of too
many standards within the industry
leading some countries to cooperate on
one standard. Japan and China recently
signed a memorandum to cooperate on

Trrhaologv Frotar*
1G AMPS n/a Analog (voice only)
GSM Less than Voice; SMS; conference calls; caller ID;
2G CDMA ¡Den 20Klips push to talk
GPRS 30 Kbps MMS; images; Web browsing, short
2.5G lxRTT -90 Kbps audio/vidco clips; games, applications,
EDGE and ring tone downloads
UMTS Full motion video; streaming music;
3G lxEV-DO 144 Kbps -2Mbps 3D giming, faster Web browsing
HSDPA On-demand video; videoconferencing
3.5G lxEV-DV 384 Kbps - 14.4 Mbps
High-quality streaming video, higji-
4G Standard 100Mbps quality videoconferencing; Voice-over-
not set - lGbps IP telephony

Exhibit 4- 4: Wireless Generations: Technology,
Speed and Features

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developing and rolling out a common
standard with a goal of deploying a 4G
network by 2010. lxxix

Wireless gaming will be more predominant than ‘wired’ gaming in some markets
where existing cellular infrastructures are more prevalent.

• Wireless networks are faster and cheaper in Europe and Asia where cellular
networks are more abundant than fixed line infrastructures, leading many
industry experts to project significant growth in the wireless gaming industry.

As such many countries will build upon existing cellular networks taking market
share from declining fixed-line markets. This trend can already be seen in parts
of the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia, Oman and Qatar where they are
testing 3G services following its successful introduction in Bahrain and
Israel.lxxx

• The emergence of Wi-Fi hot spots are also an important development for
gaming. In many parts of the world, cities are deploying Wi-Fi hot spots to
increase network connectivity and in some instances gaming companies are
partnering with telecommunications firms. For instance, Nintendo recently
partnered with BT Openzone to establish hot spots in the UK to enable mobile
gaming.lxxxi

The Maturation of the Mobile Platform

Rapid growth of the mobile market in mature and emerging regions will expand the
reach of the mobile gaming space exponentially.

• Strong growth is expected in the mobile sector with expansion rates ranging
from 30% to 35% a year, bringing the industry’s value to an estimated worth of
US$6 billion by 2010.lxxxii Rapid growth in the mobile industry will continue to
be spurred by the explosion of ‘data’ applications (i.e. text, ring tones, streaming
video) to include gaming and the further convergence of these applications,
transforming the cellular phone into an integrated mobile platform moving well
beyond voice. lxxxiii Such growth will expand both the mobile market and in turn
the mobile gaming space.

• Gaming has already become a major player in the mobile space competing with
other popular data applications. Last year marked the first time consumers spent
more downloading games than ringtones, a significant milestone considering the
popularity of ringtones worldwide.lxxxiv •

• The expansion of the gaming industry in emerging and new regions is also
expected to drive the growth of the mobile gaming sector.lxxxv

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The penetration of next generation game enabled devices with internet access
capabilities and enhanced graphics will facilitate the growth of wireless gaming.

• The number of game enabled devices is expected to grow rapidly from about 40%
of the 2 billion devices available worldwide today to about 97% of all mobile
devices sold in 2008.lxxxvi There were 600 million mobile devices sold last year
alone compared to 300 million consoles sold in the 25-year history of the
videogame industry.lxxxvii

• The increasing sophistication of new handsets will make for a more
enjoyable and immersive gaming experience, thereby expanding
wireless gaming. Currently, most mobile games are simple and are
similar to games developed for consoles a decade ago because the
graphics capabilities of handsets are still relatively limited. However,
next generation devices are now being designed and marketed to
highlight their gaming features like the Samsung SGH-B450.lxxxviii

• In addition to mobile phones, portable gaming consoles like the
Nintendo DS (Dual Screen) and Sony PSP will increasingly
become an important part of the mobile gaming space.

The expansion of the game space will be driven in a large part by mobile gaming.

• A huge latent demand exists for mobile gaming with only 5 % of people who own
a phone ever downloading a game and 50% actually ever playing a game.lxxxix
Such percentages suggest a huge untapped market segment that is very
encouraging to the future of mobile gaming given the number of subscribers and
handsets available worldwide.

• Evidence of the how the game space will be driven by mobile gaming occurred
recently when for the first time more games were played on mobile devices than
on console games in 2006xc In terms of revenues, of course, console gaming is far
greater, but the importance of this event in mobile gaming cannot be
underestimated given that the gaming industry is largely driven by console
gaming. More games being played on mobile devices represents a shift in what
factors will drive the expansion of the game space in years to come.

• The significant difference in the mobile gaming market, as oppose to the personal
computer and console sectors, is that the ‘would be gamer’ already owns and
carries the platform on which they can play the game. Mobile devices also tend to
be more intimate devices to their users, always available and always onxci As
newer, more advanced technologies are deployed, market analysts expect
traditional sectors like the personal computer to lose ground to mobile
platformsxcii

Exhibit 4-5:

Samsung SGH-B450

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The availability and range of mobile gaming content will increase in the coming
years.

• The industry is now moving away from preloaded games to models where games
are required to be downloaded over the Internet from carriers and third party
providers. Such a move should enable more third party mobile game providers
and distributors to enter the market space, increasing both the availability and
range of mobile gaming content. Moreover, it will allow organizations to directly
market mobile games to end users.

• An examination of more mature markets suggests that gaming will move beyond
casual gaming leading to further growth in the industry. Japan represents the
current benchmark where many users are playing more than just casual games on
their mobile devices.xciii An exceptionally large number of games are aimed at
what would be considered console and hard core gamers, making the mobile
phone in Japan as much a games platform as any console.xciv

• Some gaming experts suggest that multiplayer games are the next big thing in
mobile gaming as they attempt to recreate virtual worlds for mobile devices,
while other analysts suggest that the next big breakout game would be a mobile
game that leverages the power of mobile networks and devices integrating
features like voice and GPS into the gamexcv While industry leaders have
different views, all are searching for the mobile game that will drive the mobile
platform similar to how the Halo, Madden Football and Zelda franchises drove
sales of the Xbox, Play Station 2 and Nintendo gaming consoles respectively.™”
Such a game would prove invaluable to expanding the mobile gaming market.

• The skills required for a successful mobile game programmer are not
insurmountable and include knowledge of Java and J2ME, BREW, Symbian OS,
OpenGL ES, and/or Mophun. While a skilled programmer would currently be
required to develop a mobile game using one of the aforementioned programs, the
introduction of middleware or game modification software in the coming years
should enable a broader group to create compelling content for mobile games.

The Rise of Virtual Worlds

Virtual worlds will provide the greatest opportunities to support terrorist operations,
particularly in the areas of communication, coordination, recruitment andfundraising
activities.§§§§ As virtual worlds expand, terrorist opportunities to exploit them will also
increase.

§§§§ For a more in depth look at the various ways terrorist organizations can exploit the game space see an
earlier paper produced in this series "Exploitation and Function of Games: An Interactive Influence
Medium." SAIC. September, 2006.

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• Virtual worlds will become a powerful medium in nascent markets mirroring
adoption and consumption patterns in more mature markets. As virtual worlds
expand, they will increasingly play an important host to a range of ordinary
human affairs in which participants may communicate, coordinate, socialize,
train, learn, simulate, experiment, build, proselytize and even barter virtual
goods.xcvii

The emergence of virtual worlds has significant consequences because events
within the virtual space at times cannot be isolated from the real world, leading some to
suggest that the line between the “virtual” and “real” world is blurring, even becoming
non-existent. This phenomenon can best be seen in a virtual world’s social interactions,
experimental learning and value of virtual goods and services.

• Social interactions occurring in virtual worlds are not simulations of human
interactions, rather they are human interactions merely extended in a new
forum. Virtual worlds are places people identify with and where real and
lasting bonds form, for many becoming an important source of material and
emotional well being. Avatars become a representation of ones identify and
immersion into the virtual world increases the identity that one feels to the virtual
self. This connection with the virtual world invokes many of the same
psychological triggers as in the real worldxcviii. For instance, reciprocity and liking
extensively come into play in relationship formationxcix and the process of
developing ones avatar seems to invoke exactly the same risk and reward
structures in the brain that are invoked by personal development in the real
world.c As virtual worlds become more immersive and expand into newer
markets, the number of gamers who identify with and form relationships within
these spaces will expand.

• The expansion of virtual worlds will provide a space for experimental learning to
develop knowledge or hone a particular skill set with practical applicability in the
real world. For instance, becoming an effective leader of a guild amounts to a
“total-immersion” course in leadership - guild leaders are required to be adept at
many skills to include “attracting, evaluating and recruiting new members;
creating apprenticeship programs; orchestrating group strategy; and adjudicating
disputes.”ci Absent the virtual surroundings, these skills are prerequisites to
managing and leading any organization.cii

• Virtual goods, services and currencies have real world value exceeding US$100
million globally. Trades occur in games among players, between players and the
preset game vendors, and on third party sites like E-Bay, IGE and numerous other
sites. Current estimates indicate that a large demand for intangible goods exists
within the digital world valued in the range of US$1 - $2 billion making the value
of virtual goods quite real. For instance, a World of Warcraft (WOW) gold piece is

Edward Castronova originally makes this point in regards to communication occurring the virtual
space, however, it is appropriate to extend his argument to all forms of social interaction that occur within
virtual worlds.

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valued at .46 cents to the US Dollar, meaning a WOW gold piece is traded at
higher rates to the US Dollar then real world currencies like the Algerian Dinar,
Iraqi Dinar, Egyptian Pound, Syrian Pound, Pakistani Rupee, Indonesian Rupiahs,
and Chinese Yuan Renminbi.^^

Virtual World* US Dollars British Pounds Euro Algerian Dinars Indonesian Rupiahs
Dark Age of Camelot 0.71 0.362 0.546 50.802 6,416.55
World of Warcraft (US) 0.46 0.235 0.354 32.914 4,157.20
World of Warcraft (EU) 0.033 0.0168 0.0254 2.361 298.23
Second Life 0.014 0.00711 0.0107 0.998 126.07
Auto Assault 0.013 0.00663 0.0100 0.930 117.49
Everquest 0.000237 0.000121 0.000182 0.017 2.14
Dungeons and Dragons 0.00015 0.0000765 0.000115 0.0107 1.36
Everquest II 0.000148 0.0000755 0.000114 0.0106 1.34
Final Fantasy XI 0.0000269 0.0000137 0.0000207 0.00192 0.24
Star Wars Galaxies 0.00000104 0.00000053 0.0000008 0.0000744 0.01

Virtual World * Syrian Pounds Iraqi Dinars Egyptian Pounds Pakistani Rupees Chinese Yuan Renminbi
Dark Age of Camelot 37.625 937.058 4.048 43.257 5.543
World of Warcraft (US) 24.377 607.108 2.622 28.0255 3.591
World of Warcraft (EU) 1.749 43.553 0.188 2.0105 0.258
Second Life 0.739 18.411 0.0795 0.8499 0.109
Auto Assault 0.689 17.157 0.0741 0.7920 0.101
Everquest 0.0126 0.313 0.00135 0.0144 0.00185
Dungeons and Dragons 0.00795 0.198 0.00086 0.00914 0.00117
Everquest II 0.00784 0.195 0.00084 0.00902 0.00116
Final Fantasy XI 0.00143 0.0355 0.000153 0.00164 0.00021
Star Wars Galaxies 0.0000551 0.00137 0.000006 0.0000634 0.00000812

Exhibit 4-6: Exchange Rate between Leading Virtual Currencies and Real World Currencies

Virtual worlds are expanding at exponential rates rivaling the growth of email
fifteen years ago. Expansion in newer markets will further spur the growth of existing
and new virtual worlds.

• Populations in leading virtual worlds such as Lineage II, EverQuest II and World
of Warcraft are growing at phenomenal rates with many worlds exceeding
100,000 subscribers and some even one million™1 Also, the rate at which new
virtual worlds are appearing in the game space is an almost exact match to

Exchange rates for virtual currency are subject to the same supply and demand rules that effect real
currencies with some variations such as the game type, the server where the virtual currency resides, and
the website or exchange bank a gamer uses to exchange the currencies.

SAIC utilized current rates for virtual currencies from IGE to calculate the exchange rates between
virtual currencies and real world currencies were calculated on January, 11,2007.

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Moore’s law with many worlds exceeding 100,000 subscribers and some even one
million.clv

• The diffusion of newer CPUs and GPUs coupled with the expansion of broadband
Internet access in emerging markets will fuel continued growth, particularly in
virtual worlds. Projections indicate rapid growth in virtual worlds during the
coming years with more than 10 million online game players in the U.S.
(approximately the size of New York City) and 30 million gamers worldwide
(approximately the size of Shanghai, Bombay and Karachi combined).cv The
biggest market for virtual worlds remains Asia closely followed by the United
States; however, it is only a matter of time before other markets become more
active in online gaming.

• The expansion of virtual worlds and the growth rate of its populations lead some
to suggest that virtual worlds may soon become the primary venue for all online
activity.cvi The immersive, persistent and interactive characteristics of virtual
worlds would enable communication, socialization, and coordination in more
effective ways then other mediums.

The Explosion of User Generated Content

User generated content will emerge as a driving force in the gaming space. It will
be enabled by the increased availability of software products and programming
features, lowering the barrier of entry for users to alter, modify and create games.

• The growing availability of middleware or modification programs enable
individuals to modify content (partial conversion) or create an entirely new game
(a total conversion). Popular middleware products include 3D world building
packages such as Genesis 3D, Quake, Unreal, and Half-Life; multiplayer
adventure games like Aurora Toolkit; and systems for handling massively
multiplayer games like BigWorld, Butterfly.net, and Terazona. These middleware
products have been used to create successful games like Counterstrike (Half-Life)
and America’s Army (Unreal); more dubious games have also been created such
as Ethnic Cleansing (Genesis 3D), Under Ash and Under Siege (Genesis 3D) and
Special Force (Genesis 3D). •

• Third party software products are available and can be purchased for a marginal
cost, allowing users to create a fully-customizable and easy to design game.
Preloaded design packages allow a user to click and select from a multitude of
gaming scenarios to design their own game. Many of these types of packages are
simulation packages designed to train users on given subjects. One such package
offered by Mosbe enables a user to create a simulation to provide a platform
strategy development, experimentation, and rehearsal. The package includes
preloaded military, civilian, and environmental settings in Iraq, Syria, and the

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Korean Peninsula, as well as hundreds of vehicles (air and ground combat, as well
as civilian) and weapons for even more accurate and realistic simulations.§§§§§

• An emerging trend within content generation is using 3D video game graphics
technology to create animated films known as Machinima. Combining aspects of
film making, animation and game design, Machinima allows users to create their
own film complete with sets, props, special effects, plots and virtual actors at a
minimal cost. Software products also allow users to capture game video to
produce and edit in game events. One of the more popular political Machinima
pieces is French Democracy, a depiction of the 2005 French riots from the
Muslim perspective.

• High costs associated with developing games ($20-30 million per major title)
have led many smaller publishers on a path to leverage user generated content,
harnessing the users’ creativity as a resource to ‘populate’ the virtual space.
Opening scripting options allows users to script events ranging from object
control, to avatar behavior, to mini-games and other complex programs making
imagination the only limitation of what a resident can create in the virtual space.
This provides a unique opportunity for organizations to promote given agendas.

§§§§§ For more information on MOSBE, see TSJOnline “A Toolkit for the People”

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Second Life Case Study: Content Generation as a Driving Force

• Second Life's content creation engine and LSL feature allows residents to create virtually
anything, protected by very real intellectual property rights. These tools and subsequent
intellectual property protections have spurred the growth of a goods and services industry
including entrepreneurs (e.g. real estate moguls), artisans (e.g. architects and fashion
designers) and professional services (e.g. notary public), stimulating an economy
generating nearly $5 million in trade between residents every month. The Second Life's
content creation engine and LSL features also enable residents to be creative and have fun
with other residents. One of the more notable examples of unique content is the
abductions of residents by aliens whereby abductees receive a T-shirt proclaiming "I was
abducted by Aliens.”

• Second Life enjoys 90,000 hours of use per day, with approximately 25% of that time
spent creating. That equates to 11 user/years per day, which would require a 4,100-
member content development team costing $40 million per year. In a given week, 5,000
distinct residents wrote original scripts (15%), representing 2.5 million lines of source
code.

• Second Life allows residents to promulgate any Uniform Resource Locator (URL) audio
or video stream to local communities in Second Life. Second Life also permits users to
export XML data from the game to external web sites. Together, this functionality lets
users stream "real” events into the virtual world and "virtual” events into the real word.

Advances in Digital Rendering

Advances in digital rendering are forthcoming with improvements in Graphics
Processing Units (GPUs) and rendering algorithms that will enable game designers to
create more life like images and experiences, further increasing the immersion of
users.

• Existing GPUs are extremely powerful in terms of computing power enabling
game designers to render life like images in games. Currently, low end GPUs
surpass high end CPUs by at least two to five times in a wide variety of
computing tasks. GPUs peak throughput power also is growing by a factor of two

Second Life (abbreviated to SL) is an Internet-based virtual world which came to international
attention via mainstream news media in late 2006 and early 2007. Developed by Linden Lab, a
downloadable client program enables users to interact with each other through motional avatars, providing
an advanced level of a social network service combined with general aspects of a metaverse. While SL is
sometimes referred to as a game, in general it does not have points, scores, winners or losers, levels, an
end-strategy, or most of the other characteristics of games. Users, often called "residents", can visit this
virtual world almost as if it were a real place. They explore, meet other residents, socialize, participate in
individual and group activities, and buy items (virtual property) and services from one another. As they
spend more time in the world, they learn new skills and mature socially, learning the culture and manners
of a virtual environment. The excerpt on Second Life was extracted from the Insights from Silicon Valley:
Enabling Technologies Conference Proceedings.

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or more every year because of the demands of the video game industry meaning
that hardware will not be a limitation in creating life like images in games.cvl1

Exhibit 4-7: GPU versus CPU PerformanceCV1U

• Advanced rendering algorithms and techniques enable game designers to create
realistic 3D images within the game environment without sacrificing GPU
performance and allow gamers to experience the details of the environment. One
such method, parallax occlusion mapping, enables graphic game designers to
simulate the illusion of depth on uneven surfaces without increasing the geometric
complexity of rendered objects.®® Such innovation will allow games to create
3D virtual environments mimicking real world environments.®®

Advances in the Science of Haptics

Advances in haptics (the study of touch and the cutaneous senses) are expected to
grow in the coming years providing sensory feedback and furthering the level of
immersion in games.

• Haptic devices allow users to experience a sensation of touch and physical
properties when they interact with virtual materials. They exert force in response
to a user's action, at the point of action. They enable active 'two-way' interaction
with virtual objects, where action and perception are brought together.cix Haptic
devices have been making inroads in gaming for sometime, but recent and future

tttttt por more information on digital rendering techniques, see Practical Parallax Occlusion Mapping with
Approximate Soft Shadows for Detailed Surface Rendering Natalya Tatarchuk ATI Research. Available for
download at http://ati.amd.com/developer/techreports/2006/I3D2006/Tatarchuk-POM-SI3D06.pdf
Some suggest that the sophistication of current computer graphics is already sufficient to enable
unconscious immersion in virtual worlds. For more information, see Synthetic Worlds, p87.

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efforts are moving beyond vibrating gaming controllers and into truly immersive
sensory devices.

• Nintendo has been at the forefront of major hardware manufactures and
publishers in implementing haptics. Nintendogs is a popular game that elicits
emotion through its advanced voice and touch recognition software, helping to
create a strong emotional bond with the virtual pets. Users must talk and touch the
dog to elicit a response from the virtual pet. Game designer Hideki Konno states,
“It is one thing to type in a name and it is an entirely different emotional response
to call and see the puppy turn its head and run over to greet you.”cx Nintendogs
has been an international phenomenon selling more than 4 million units
worldwide. Also, the Wii, Nintendo’s newest gaming console, offers advanced
interaction though wireless remotes where users must use the remote like they
would use the item in the game. For instance, tennis requires the user to swing at
the ball using different swings and techniques. The introduction of the Wii has
taken interactive gaming to a whole other level of immersion.

• Future devices employing haptics are not far off with some being marketed in the
near term. One device by Novint Technologies, expected to debut later this year,
allows the user to feel weight, shape, texture, dimension, dynamics, 3-D motion,
and force effects.§§§§§§ Another product lets users interact physically with virtual
objects. For instance, by using a sensor-equipped glove and a force-reflecting
exoskeleton, you could literally feel the shape, texture and weight of an onscreen
3-D object. Such devices are used now for virtual modeling, medicine and
the military, but as costs decrease, haptic interfaces could become more widely
available in the gaming space increasing immersion tenfold.

Exhibit 4-8: Haptic Devices by Immersion 3D

§§§§§§ por more information on Haptic devices by Novint, see their webpage at http://www.novint.com/
For more information on Haptic devices being developed by Immersion 3D, see their website at
http://www.immersion.com

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Chapter Addendum

Emerging trends in the gaming space will be used to the advantage of groups
committed to terrorizing societies to achieve their goals. They will be an enabler of a
more mature and expanded gaming space, creating a powerful medium analogous to
the internet for terrorist organizations to reach and target core audiences.

• Emerging trends will drive growth in the gaming space across age, gender and
cultural boundaries. Spread of existing technologies like broadband Internet
access and the advent of new technologies like next generation wireless networks
and mobile devices will mean greater access to individuals residing in burgeoning
markets.

• Changes within the gaming space will continue at a rapid pace. While marked
differences will exist particularly with access methods, newer markets are
expected to mirror the experience of more mature markets in terms of growth and
usage patterns. Gaming will become a powerful medium playing an increasingly
important role in a range of ordinary human affairs, particularly in virtual worlds,
providing an extension and a virtual component to supplement their operations.

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CHAPTER 5

Photo from Global Islamic Media Front's
Quest for Bush ■ The Night of Bush Capturing Game

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Focus Areas

This section identifies and discusses three areas for focusing counterterrorism
efforts in the game space: in-game counterpropaganda, new game development, and
intelligence collection.

• These three areas are most effectively pursued concurrently and holistically,
with operations in one area supporting operations in the other two, and with all
operations feeding into analysis of the counterterrorist threat in the game
space, as illustrated below.

Compete fo r Players with
New Games

Counter In-
Game

Propaganda

Exhibit 5-1: Holistic Approach to Game Involvement

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Countering In-Game Propaganda

Countering extremist propaganda in the game space can be achieved in part by
being an active game player. Establishing an in-game presence allows for virtual
interfacing, information exchanges, and developing influential relationships with both
adversaries and allies. In-game interaction also can help shape real-life attitudes and
perceptions.

• Establishing an in-game presence would enable identification of influential
players, their guilds and other common interest groups. These relationships can
be exploited to facilitate “viral” message spread or in-game dialogue for
counterpropaganda purposes.

• Establishing an in-game presence also would enable identification of important
propaganda efforts in the game space. Identification of propaganda allows for
working with the game producer to eliminate harmful or misleading information
from the game space and/or for developing a counterpropaganda campaign.

• Establishing an in-game presence would aid the determination of optimal
message placement areas — cued by where propaganda is surfacing and how it
is spreading in-game. For example, in some games there are large bulletin
boards or other communication areas that are exploited.

• In-game assets might form partnerships with “celebrity” avatars or popular game
design companies for in-game public service announcements such as “anti-
violence” campaigns. Generating in-game public service announcements backed
by game producers, NGOs or other public interest groups is a popular
phenomenon in some game spaces. For example, the Omidyar Network currently
sponsors the Camp Darfur campaign, which is run on the Better World Island in
Second Life. The purpose of the campaign is to educate players on the crisis in
Sudan.cxi

Exhibit 5-2: Snapshot of Camp Darfur, sponsored by the Omidyar Network, in Second Life.cxii

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Competing for Players with New Games

Another opportunity to focus IC counterterrorism efforts in the game space is new
game or modified game development to compete with extremist groups operating in the
game space. Working with commercial partners, students, and others in the game
space to develop a competitive game and attract the target audience would aid this
effort

• Market research could provide valuable insights into the interests and habits of
game players from a particular target audience. Using focus groups throughout
the game production cycle also would help to identify the strengths and
weaknesses of the story, graphics, and game play.

• Partnerships with gaming industry leaders and a gaming advisory board might
help the IC direct the development of new games with the best chance for
success. An advisory board might be comprised of experts from a variety of
academic disciplines and commercial industries, including public diplomacy,
Silicon Valley, Venture capitalism, NGOs, international relations, game
development, and celebrity game players.

• Student groups also couldfuel new game development. Many colleges and
universities now host programs that focus on game design and production. Asset-
sponsored scholarships and incentives could be used to encourage students to
develop appropriately-themed game designs. For example, each year the
University of Southern California (USC) sponsors a video game design contest in
which students compete for a $25,000 grand prize. Students are asked to develop
games that could be used for public diplomacy purposes.

• Finally, it is important to highlight that modifying games (or “modding”) is a
popular and cost effective way to produce new games or additional “chapters”
to existing games. Many companies allow the codes of their popular titles to
surface on the Internet because modding tends to increase a game’s shelf life and
provides the original game producer time to build a new quality product. An
organization can mod a game in-house or encourage a member of the modding
community to make mods independently.

Exhibit 5-3: USC promotes diplomacy via new media including games.™“

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Collecting In-Game Intelligence

Gaming is an increasingly popular activity among many demographic groups
across North America, Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa.cxiv Monitoring of in-
game activities and related game-devoted areas of the Internet such as blogs,
chatrooms, and virtual periodicals, provide significant intelligence collection
opportunities.

Exhibit 5-4: Joystick Gaming Blogcxv

For example, game space provides potential opportunities to identify terrorist
financial operations by monitoring the flow of money in virtual economies and
determining who is involved in the buying and selling of virtual goods andfundraising.

• From virtual real estate to virtual clothing for avatars, the sale of virtual goods is
increasing rapidly. Virtual monies hold real-world value and can be cashed-out
into hard currency. Game players trade virtual products in exchange for real
money via portals such as E-bay and Second Life. Intangible goods in digital
worlds are estimated to be worth $1 billion to $2 billion.cxvi

• Furthermore, players sharing account information may be utilizing game space to
transfer funds from one person to another - under the auspices of a single player’s
account. The ability to upload in-world currency makes this plausible. Studying
the activities and profiles of users selling virtual goods might help determine
whether or not funds are being funneled by or to terrorists.

• “Gold farming,” or game-supported sweatshops in which workers play games to
develop the strongest avatars which can then be sold on websites such as E-bay
for large profits, could be used for terrorist fundraising purposes. Where gold
farming is taking place and who is benefiting from the sale of avatars or goods
also represents a useful area of investigation.

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Exhibit 5-5: A virtual store in Second Lifecxvu

Game-devoted areas of the Internet such as blogs, chatrooms, online
periodicals, wikis, andforums can provide unique insights into hot trends for key
target audiences of interest to the IC.

• Intelligence collection of this sort would provide such basic information as which
new titles are most popular and best suited for message dissemination.

• Of particular interest would be commentary on games with political messages
such as Kuma/Wars.

Chapter Addendum

SAIC’s strategic communications division provides unique capabilities to support
counterpropaganda, new game development, and intelligence collection in the game
space.

1. Tracking terrorist gaming trends using the SAIC Prototype

SAIC’s automated processing capability of terrorist Web site content provides a unique
opportunity to track terrorist online games. Data processing and reporting might address:
(1) current popular online games and associated discourse, (2) social networks emerging
in these communities, (3) gaming and community sites that are increasing or decreasing
in popularity, (4) the emergence of new terrorist gaming sites in cyberspace or current
game sites that have been modified, (5) the online spread of terrorist gaming activity, and
(6) Web sites that host material about terrorist games.

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2. Organizing a Gaming Advisory Board

Through the Cyber-Influence Conference Series, SAIC has expanded the IC’s network of
gaming experts with varied academic and technical backgrounds. SAIC might help
leverage this network to develop a Gaming Advisory Board.

3. Assist in the development of an IOC institutional knowledge gaming database
Having conducted extensive research on terrorist gaming efforts, SAIC analysts might
help facilitate IOC’s development of an institutional knowledge gaming database to
support operations and analysis.

4. Organize efforts to construct a game

SAIC might also help organize a game construction effort out-of-house. This effort could
leverage the network of gaming professionals established via the Cyber-Influence
Conference Series as well as SAIC’s experience in game development.

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INDEX

#

3-D, 37, 59
3G, 44, 46, 48, 49, 50
4G, 44, 48, 49, 50
5G, 48

A

AC Nielson, 6

Active, 17, 20
Addiction, 24

Addiction recovery programs, 24
Africa, 6, 35, 46, 65
Age of Empires, 41
Al-Jazeera, 48

American Cancer Society, 12

Arabic, 8, 9
ARG, 33
Army, 10, 13, 55

Asia, 12, 35, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 55
Assault on Iran, 9
Assault on Iran, Pt. 3, 9

B

Battlefield, 13
Battlefield 2, 13
BigWorld, 13, 55
Bombay, 6, 55
Bourdieu, Pierre 16
BREW, 52
Broadband, 45, 46, 47
BT Openzone, 50
Butterfly.net, 13, 55

C

Casual, 71

Chain of Command, 21
China, 49
Civilization, 41
College students, 13
Combat, 11

Command & Conquer, 41
Commander Bahman, 9
Communication, 27
Conditioning, 21
Counter, 47

Counterstrike, 10, 13, 28, 47, 55
CPU, 58
Culture, 45, 71

cybercafés. See Internet cafes
Cybertown, 30

D

Dar al-Fikr, 9

Darfur, 22
DARWARS, 11

Delta Force 2, 21
Dinar, 54
Dollar, 54
Doom, 13, 28

E

E-Bay, 53

Education, 71
Egypt, 47

EMEA, 46, 47, 48, 49
Emerging trends, 26, 44, 60
Entertainment, 45, 71
Ethnic Cleansing, 13, 21, 22, 55
Europe, 6, 35, 48, 50, 65
EverQuest, 29, 54
EverQuest II, 54
Exchange rate, 54
Expansion, 54
exploit, 52

F

Falcon 4.0, 21
Farsi, 8, 9
film, 31
Film, 31

First-person Shooter, 27, 28
Fishing Bear, 10
Food Force, 38
Foreign Ground, 22
FPS, 9, 13, 28, 47
Framework, 18, 71
Fraps, 14

French, 8, 11, 14, 56
French Democracy, 14, 56
Fundraising, 12

G

Games

Age of Empires, 41
Assault on Iran, 9
Assault on Iran, Pt. 3, 9
Battlefield, 13
Battlefield 2, 13
BigWorld, 13, 55
Chain of Command, 21
Butterfly.net, 13, 55
Chain of Command, 21
Civilization, 41
Command & Conquer, 41

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(Games Cont'd)

Commander Bahman, 9
Counterstrike, 10, 13, 28, 47, 55
Cybertown, 30
Delta Force 2, 21
Doom, 13, 28

Ethnic Cleansing, 13, 21, 22, 55

EverQuest, 29, 54

EverQuest II, 54

Falcon 4.0, 21

French Democracy, 14, 56

Fishing Bear, 10

Food Force, 38

Foreign Ground, 22

Islamic Fun, 10, 38

Islamic Resistance, 10, 39

Habbo Hotel, 30

Half-Life, 12, 13, 28, 55

Halo, 28, 52

Legend of Mir, 29

Lineage, 29, 44, 54

Lineage II, 54

Madden Football, 52

Madden NFL, 36

Master of Orion, 41

Microsoft Flight Simulator, 36

Mu, 29

Night of Bush Capturing, 28
Nintendogs, 59
Ocular Effect, 33
Operation Flashpoint, 21
Orbital Colony, 33
Oregon Trail, 39
Perplex City, 33

Second Life, 12, 30, 31,44, 54, 57, 71

SimCity, 36

Studio Cyphers, 33

Sonic Jihad, 14

Sopranos, 33

Special Force, 8, 13, 55

Star Wars Galaxies, 29, 54

Starcraft, 41

Steel Beasts, 21

Terazona, 13, 55

The Resistance, 10, 38

There, 30, 36, 51

Two Bunny Race, 10

Zelda, 52

Virtual Magic Kingdom, 30
Ummah Defense, 9
Ummah Defense II, 9
Under Ash, 9, 13, 28, 55
Under Siege, 9, 55

World of Warcraft, 20, 29, 31, 44, 53, 54
Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, 39
Who is Benjamin Stove, 33
Game Engine

Genesis 3D, 12, 13, 55
Half-Life, 12, 13, 28, 55
Quake, 12, 13, 55
Unreal, 12, 13, 28, 55

Genesis 3D, 12, 13, 55
GPU, 58
Graphic, 22
Growth, 47, 49
Guild, 29
guilds, 47

H

Habbo Hotel, 30
Half-Life, 12, 13, 28, 55
Halo, 28, 52
Haptic, 58, 59
Hezbollah, 8, 71
Hurricane Katrina, 12

I

Ideology, 16
Imagery, 45
Immersive, 33
Indonesia, 47
Industry, 45, 46
Influence, 8, 27, 45, 52
Injustice, 9

Innovative Minds, Inc., 10

Internet cafes, 6, 7, 8, 47
Internet connection, 13
Intifada, 8
Iran, 9, 47

Iranian Islamic Students Association, 9

Iraq, 11, 13, 48, 55
Islam, 9, 10
Islamic Fun, 10, 38
Islamic Resistance, 10, 39
Israeli, 8, 9, 39, 41
Israeli occupation, 8, 9, 41

J

J2ME, 52

Japan, 49, 52
Java, 52
Jew, 21
Jordan, 47

K

Karachi, 6, 55
Kazakhstan, 47
KKK, 13, 21
Kuma, 9, 13, 14, 47, 48
Kuwait, 47

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L

LAN, 7, 47, See Local Area Network

Latino, 21

Lebanon, 10, 39

Legend of Mir, 29

Lineage, 29, 44, 54

Lineage II, 54

Local Area Network, 7, 47

M

Machinima, 13, 14, 31, 56
Madden Football, 52
Madden NFL, 36
Malaysia, 47
Market, 45, 46, 48
Master of Orion, 41
message, 47

Microsoft Flight Simulator, 36

Middle East, 6, 13, 38, 45, 46, 47, 50, 65

Middleware, 12, 13

Military, 11, 71

MMOG, 7, 10, 47

MMORPG, 24, 33

Mobile, 45, 49, 50, 51

Mobile gaming, 49

Mophun, 52

Mosbe, 55

Mu, 29

Muslim, 9, 56

N

Narrative, 45
Network, 47

New York City, 6, 13, 55
Night of Bush Capturing, 28
Nintendo, 50, 51, 52, 59
Nintendogs, 59
Novint Technologies, 59

O

Ocular Effect, 33
Officer Dan, 14
Oman, 50

Ondrejka, Cory 71
Online gaming, 10, 44
OpenGL ES, 52

Operation, 21
Operation Flashpoint, 21
Orbital Colony, 33
Oregon Trail, 39

P

Pakistan, 47
Palestinian, 8, 9, 39, 71
Participation, 10
Passive, 21
Pentagon, 11
Perplex City, 33
Planet Battlefield, 31, 32
Platform, 50
Play Station 2, 52
Popularity, 6
Pound, 54
Production, 12
Propaganda, 8, 27

Q

Qatar, 50
Quake, 12, 13, 55
Quiz, 39

R

Radical groups, 9
Resistance, 13, 21
Resistance Records, 13, 21
Revenge, 9
Role exploration, 20
Role Playing Games, 29
Rupee, 54

S

SAIC, 24, 31,45, 52, 54

Saudi Arabia, 47, 50

Scenario, 28, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 41

Second Life, 12, 30, 31,44, 54, 57, 71

SimCity, 36

Simulation, 11, 27, 36

Singapore School of Combat Engineers, 21
Skinhead, 13, 21
Social, 53

Social interaction, 53
Sonic Jihad, 14
Sopranos, 33
Special Force, 8, 13, 55
Star Wars Galaxies, 29, 54
Starcraft, 41
Steel Beasts, 21
Story, 19, 39
Strategy, 27, 41
Studio Cyphers, 33
Symbian OS, 52
Syria, 55

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T

Technology, 21
Terazona, 13, 55
Terrorism, 44
Terrorist, 8, 13, 28, 31,44
The Resistance, 10, 38
There, 30, 36, 51
Tool, 20, 27
Turkmenistan, 47
Two Bunny Race, 10

U

UK, 50

Ummah Defense, 9

Ummah Defense II, 9

Under Ash, 9, 13, 28, 55

Under Siege, 9, 55

United Arab Emirates, 47

United States, 12, 35, 36, 44, 45, 46, 55

United States Institute of Peace, 44

Unreal, 12, 13, 28, 55

US, 10, 11, 13, 31, 32, 33, 46, 47, 49, 50, 53, 54
USC,71
Uzbekistan, 47

V

Virtual Magic Kingdom, 30
Virtual world, 29, 52, 53, 54
VoIP, 10

W

Warcraft, 41
Weimann, 44

Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, 39
Who is Benjamin Stove, 33
Wi-Fi, 50
Wii, 59

Wireless, 49, 50

World of Warcraft, 20, 29, 31, 44, 53, 54
Wright, 45

Y

Yankee Group, 21

Yuan, 54

Z

Zelda, 52

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REFERENCES

1 Castronova, E. (2006). Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. University
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See also:

DeBenedictis, S., Robbins, B., Dunin, E., Estanislao, J., James, D., Valadares, J., et al. (2005,

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iii PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006, September). Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006-

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70210044EEA7?opendocument&vendor=none

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xii World Net Daily. (2003, March 3). Trouble in the Holy Land: Hezbollah's New Computer

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xiii (FBIS | GMP20060920736002 | 20061309 | (u) | CIRAS ID:)

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xlvBaertlein, L. (2006, June 9). US Video Game Company Seeks Dialogue with Iran. Reuters.
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iran.html

xv Brachman, J. M. (2006, Summer). High-Tech Terror: Al-Qaeda's Use of New Technology. The

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xvi Rolston, D. (2006, August 16). Combining Imagery, Narrative, Camaraderie, and Action to

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The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 30(2). Retrieved August 12, 2006, from
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xviii Innovative Minds. (n.d.). The Resistance. In Islamnic Fun CD-ROM. Retrieved August 15,

2006, from Innovative Minds Web site: http://www.inminds.co.uk/islamic-fun.html

xix Bray, H. (2004, December 8). War 2.0: Cambridge firm designs combat simulator to help

soldiers bound for Iraq. Boston Globe. Retrieved August 25, 2006, from Boston Globe Web
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xxi Castronova, E. (2005, May). Real Products in Imaginary Worlds. Harvard Business Review,

May 2005, 20-22. Retrieved October 11, 2006, from Thomas Gale database.

xxii Ondrejka, C. (2006, February). Linden Labs: Second Life. In Cyber-Influence Conference.

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Influence Conference Series 2.0 Proceedings, 2006.

xxiii Rolston, D. (2006, August 16). Combining Imagery, Narrative, Camaraderie, and Action to

Create Persuasive Virtual Worlds. In SAIC (Chair), Cyber Influence Conference Series 2.0:
Insights from Entertainment and Gaming: The Convergence of Narrative, Imagery and
Cyber Media. Symposium conducted at Los Angeles, California. Abstract obtained from
Cyber-Influence Conference Series 2.0 Proceedings, 2006.

xxiv Rolston, D. (2006, August 16). Combining Imagery, Narrative, Camaraderie, and Action to

Create Persuasive Virtual Worlds. In SAIC (Chair), Cyber Influence Conference Series 2.0:
Insights from Entertainment and Gaming: The Convergence of Narrative, Imagery and
Cyber Media. Symposium conducted at Los Angeles, California. Abstract obtained from
Cyber-Influence Conference Series 2.0 Proceedings, 2006.

xxv Morgan, D. (2006, May 5). Islamists Using US Video Games in Youth Appeal. Reuters.

Retrieved August 7, 2006, from Yahoo! News - Singapore Web site:
http://sg.news.yahoo.com/060504/3/40kie.html

xxvi Henry, D. (2006, March 22). Kuma Reality Games Developing on Source. Blender Magazine.

Retrieved August 26, 2006, from Kuma Reality Games website:
http://www.kumawar.com/PressReleases/03-22-2006.php

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xxvii Halper, K. (2006, August 16). Television for a Generation Raised on Interactive Games. In

SAIC (Chair), Cyber Influence Conference Series 2.0: Insights from Entertainment and
Gaming: The Convergence of Narrative, Imagery and Cyber Media. Symposium conducted
at Los Angeles, California.

xxviii Pardew, L. (2006, April 19). Intersection of Gaming and Religion. In SAIC (Chair), Cyber-

Influence Conference Series 2.0. Symposium conducted at SAIC, McLean, Virginia.
Abstract obtained from Insights from Social and Religious Experts: Impacting Attitudes,
Beliefs and Perceptions, 2006. Manufacturers of Christian games in the US have used such
religiously motivated volunteer work to reduce costs.

xxix "Sonic Jihad" (Producer/Director/Writer). (2006). Sonic Jihad [Motion picture].

Retrieved October 15, 2006, from Machinima.com Web site:
http://www.machinima.com/films.php?id=2346

xxx Fraps Realtime video capture software. (2006).Retrieved October 26, 2006, from Fraps.com

Web site: http://www.fraps.com/

xxxl Betrus, D. A. (2006, October 31). A Universal Game Theory: Implications for Improving
Game-free and Game-based Instruction. Speech presented at Serious Games Summit,
Crystal City Marriott, Arlington, Virginia.

xxxii Garite, M. (2003). The ideology of interactivity (or, video games and the Taylorization of

leisure) (Digital Games Research Association Conference paper). Retrieved August 10,
2006: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05150.15436.pdf

xxxiii See Steinkuehler, C. (2006, October 31). World of YourCraft: Learning& Collaboration in

Massively Multiplayer Online Games. Lecture presented at Serious Games Summit, Crystal
City Marriott, Arlington, Virginia.

xxxlv Kaira, P. (1995). The Learning Framework [Data file]. Retrieved August 16, 2006, from
Institute for Learning and Knowledge Architecture Web site:
http://www.mithya.com/learning/index.html

xxxv Betrus, D. A. (2006, October 31). A Universal Game Theory: Implications for Improving

Game-free and Game-based Instruction. Speech presented at Serious Games Summit,
Crystal City Marriott, Arlington,Virginia.

xxxvi Betrus, D. A. (2006, October 31). A Universal Game Theory: Implications for Improving

Game-free and Game-based Instruction. Speech presented at Serious Games Summit,
Crystal City Marriott, Arlington,Virginia.

xxxvii Betrus, D. A. (2006, October 31). A Universal Game Theory: Implications for Improving

Game-free and Game-based Instruction. Speech presented at Serious Games Summit,
Crystal City Marriott, Arlington, Virginia.

xxxviii Ondrejka, C. (2006). Finding new common ground in new worlds. Games and Culture 7(1),

111-115.

xxxix See Leonard, D. J. (2006). Not a hater, just keepin' it real: The importance of race- and

gender-based game studies. Games And Culture, 7(1), 83-88. Retrieved August 1, 2006,
from Communication Studies: A SAGE Full-Text Collection database.
xl Steinkuehler, C. (2006, October 31). World of YourCraft: Learning& Collaboration in

Massively Multiplayer Online Games. Lecture presented at Serious Games Summit, Crystal
City Marriott, Arlington, Virginia.

xli See Garite, M. (2003). The ideology of interactivity (or, video games and the Taylorization of
leisure) (Digital Games Research Association Conference paper). Retrieved August 10,
2006: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/05150.15436.pdf
xl11 Gupta, S. (2006, September 20). Study: Gamers Remember Ads, Brand Names. Online Media
Daily. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from Media Post Publications Web site:
http://publications.mediapost.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=Articles.showArticle&art aid=48
400

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xllu Joshi, P. (2006, October 27). Game On! Business Standard, p. 11. Retrieved October 27, 2006,
from Factiva database: http: //global. factiva. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/ha/default. aspx
xliv Grose, T. K. (2006, May 29). On-line Ad-Ventures. Time International - Atlantic Edition,
167(22), 38. Retrieved August 21, 2006, from Factiva database:
http: //global. factiva. com.ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/ha/default. aspx
xlv Joshi, P. (2006, October 27). Game On! Business Standard, p. 11. Retrieved October 27, 2006,
from Factiva database: http: //global. factiva. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/ha/default. aspx
xlvi Fong, G. (2006, December). Adapting COTS Games for Military Experimentation. Simulation
and Gaming, 37(4), 452-465. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from Defence Science and
Technology Agency, Singapore Web site:

http://ft.csa.com.ezproxv.apollolibrarv.com/ids70/resolver.php?sessid=7587ba5eadc4797c9
c 193ed844e 1d196&server=www-

md3.csa.com&check=002ee3357836dc78f465cf554c3ada94&db=sageman-set-

c&an=10.1177%2F1046878106291670&mode=pdf&f1=1046-

8781%2C37%2C4%2C452%2C2006

xlvii Anti-Defamation League (2002). Racist Groups Using Computer Gaming to Promote
Violence Against Blacks, Latinos and Jews.

xlvi" See Yee, N. (2006). The labor of fun: How video games blur the boundaries of work and
play. Games And Culture, 1(1), 68-71. Retrieved August 1, 2006, from Communication
Studies: A SAGE Full-Text Collection database.
xlix Freeman, D. (2003). Creating Emotion in Games: The Craft and Art of Emotioneering
(chapter 1). New Rider Publications. (Original work published 2003)
l Rolls, E. T. (2000). Memory Systems in the Brain. Annual Review of Psychology, (51), 599-630.
Retrieved October 21, 2006, from Department of Experimental Psychology, University of
Oxford Web site: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=6&hid= 103&sid=3 8f0dd 1 a-
97ab-4310-b42c-ee9e0c6fc79b%40sessionmgr109
li li Statistic.com (2006). War, Peace and Video Games: Part 3. Retrieved November 29, 2006,
from: http: //statastic. com/cate gory/video-games/.
lii Anti-Defamation League (2002). Racist Groups Using Computer Gaming to Promote Violence
Against Blacks, Latinos and Jews.

liii Statistic.com (2006). War, Peace and Video Games: Part 3. Retrieved November 29, 2006,
from: http: //statastic. com/cate gory/video-games/.
liv Ondrejka, Cory. (2006, February). SAIC Cyberlnfluence Conference Series 2.0: Insights from
Silicon Valley.

lv Williams, D. (2006). Why game studies now? Gamers don’t bowl alone. Games and Culture
1(1), 13-16.

lvi Ondrejka, C. (2006). Finding new common ground in new worlds. Games and Culture 1(1),

111-115.

lvii Yee, N. (2006). The labor of fun: How video games blur the boundaries of work and play.

Games And Culture, 1 (1), 68-71.

lviii Andersen, J. (2005, September 12). Spot On: Korea Reacts to Increase in Game Addiction.
GameSpot.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006, from GameSpot Web
site: http://www.gamespot.com/news/2005/09/12/news 6132357.html
Reid, D. (2006, July 21). Addiction Clinic Opens for Gamers; and BBC Click. Retrieved August
20, 2006, from BBC News.com Web site:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/click online/5202212.stm
lix For a more in depth look at the various ways terrorist organizations can exploit the game space
see an earlier paper produced in this series "Exploitation and Function of Games: An
Interactive Influence Medium." SAIC. September, 2006.
lx http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue23/convergence/halflife.ipg

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1x1 Kramer, S. E. (2006, November). Life-Fire Exercise. Wired, 126-127.

1x11 Seeley Brown, J., & Thomas, D. (2006, April). You Play World of Warcraft? You're Hired!
Wired Magazine, (14.04). Retrieved December 17, 2006, from USC's Annenberg School
for Communications Web site: http : //www. wired.com/wired/archive/14.04/learn.html

1x111 http : //www.msu. edu/~bonddenn/screenshots/secondlife .jpg

lxiv For a machinima example that uses military characters and explains machinima, see
Machinima! With Officer Dan at http://www.machinima.com/films.php?id=4676

lxv Phillips, A., Thompson, B., Alexander, B., Dena, C., & Barlow, N. (2006). 2006 Alternate

Reality Games White Paper - IDGA ARG SIG. International Game Developers Association.
Retrieved December 1, 2006, from International Game Developers Association database:
http://www.idga.org

lxvi Weimann, G. (2004, March). www.terrror.net: How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet

(Special Report No. 116). Washington, DC, United States: United States Institute of Peace.
Retrieved December 18, 2007, from http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr116.pdf

lxvi1 SAIC. (2006, September). Exploitation and Function of Games: An Interactive Influence
Medium (Report No. 1). Vienna, VA, United States: SAIC.

lxvii1 Dille, F., & Bilson, D. (2005, May 7). Persistent Influence of Gaming. In Cyber-Influence
Conference Series: Perspectives and Insights from Entertainment Industry. Symposium
conducted at Los Angles, California. Abstract obtained from Conference Proceedings,

2005.

Rolston, D. (2006, August 16). Combining Imagery, Narrative, Camaraderie, and Action to

Create Persuasive Virtual Worlds. In SAIC (Chair), Cyber Influence Conference Series 2.0:
Insights from Entertainment and Gaming: The Convergence of Narrative, Imagery and
Cyber Media. Symposium conducted at Los Angeles, California. Abstract obtained from
Cyber-Influence Conference Series 2.0 Proceedings, 2006.

Ondrejka, C. (2006, February). Linden Labs: Second Life. Presentation at SAIC’s Cyber-
Influence Conference Series 2.0 - Insights from Silicon Valley: Enabling Technologies, San
Francisco, California, United States.

lxixCastronova, E. (2006). Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games.

University Of Chicago Press. See also International Game Developers Association (IGDA)
Casual Games White Paper 2005. Wired, The Wrinkled Future of Online Gaming Synthetic
worlds.

lxx Castronova, E. (2006). Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games (p. 66).
Chicago, Illinois, United States: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published
2006)

lxxi PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010 (p. 377). PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

lxxi1 PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010 (p. 382). PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

lxxii1 PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010 (p. 370). PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

lxxiv PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010 (p. 382). PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

lxxv PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010. PriceWaterhouseCoopers

lxxvi PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (2006). Video Games. In Global Entertainment and Media Outlook
2006-2010 (p. 383). PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

lxxvii Mace, M. (2006, December 27). Mobile Gaming in Japan: A Different World. In Mobile
Opportunity: At the Intersection of Web, Wireless, Entertainment and Computing.

Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Mobile Opportunity Web site:

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http://mobileopportunitv.blogspot.com/2006/12/mobile-gaming-in-iapan-different-

world.html

lxxviii Knight, W. (2005, September 2). 4G Prototypes Reach Blistering Speeds. New Scientist.
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