Title: CROSSHAIR – Foreign Partners Filling HF/DF Gaps for the US

Release Date: 2017-04-24

Document Date: 2005-02-24

Description: This 24 February 2005 article from the internal NSA newsletter Foreign Affairs Digest describes third party cooperation and interoperability in High Frequency Direction-Finding (HFDF): see the Intercept article Japan Made Secret Deals With The NSA That Expanded Global Surveillance, 24 April 2017.

Document: DYNAMIC PAGE -- HIGHEST POSSIBLE CLASSIFICATION IS
TOP SECRET // SI / TK // REL TO USA AUS CAN GBR NZL

(C) CROSSHAIR -- Foreign Partners Filling HF/DF Gaps for the US

FROM:

Corporate HF Services, Operations (S33113)

Run Date: 02/24/2005

A multinational effort for High Frequency Direction-Finding (HFDF) (C)

• Q: (TS//SI) What do these Third Party partners have in common?

Austria, Denmark, Ethiopia, Hungary, Israel, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Netherlands, Norway,
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Taiwan

• A: They all participate in the CROSSHAIR program, enabling the US to maintain an HFDF
capability worldwide.

(U//FOUO) CROSSHAIR implementation occurred on 01 October 1993 and is the project name (and
subsequent name of the US HFDF network) for the consolidation of all US Service Cryptologic Element
(SCE) HFDF resources into a single DF Network managed by NSA. Prior to CROSSHAIR, each of the
military SCEs had its own DF resources. In fact, at some large field sites (e.g, Misawa, Hanza), all three
SCEs operated DF systems within their respective nets (numerous field sites had two SCEs conducting
HFDF operations). However, there was no interoperability and each SCE was funded for DF separately (a
waste of dollars and resources).

(C) In the early 1990s, the Terrestrial Overt-Transition Study looked at our big, fixed, field sites
throughout the world and decided that it was necessary to close some of them to eliminate duplication and
save money. About 25 field sites were closed, which meant that the HFDF mission lost a great many
opportunities to get the lines of bearings needed to hone in on targets. Instead of, say, 10-12 sites
providing lines of bearings, maybe one or two existed. The office that is now SID's HF Mission
Management organization (S33113) needed to find other resources to do the samejob.

(C) In fact, all of our Second Party partners were fulltime members in CROSSHAIR - Canada had four
sites, Great Britain had six, Australia and New Zealand each had one; however, there were still uncovered
areas all over the world, and it occurred to S33113 that Third Parties might be able/willing to help out.
They came to what is now FAD, talked with various country desk officers to see which countries might be
willing to get involved, and thus began the expansion of the CROSSHAIR program. The network has
grown to the point where there are even trilateral arrangements whereby some of our Third Party partners
exchange HFDF information with each other!

(C) The expanded CROSSHAIR has been so successful that chief of HF Mission

Management, said, "Without Third Parties,we probably wouldn't have a worldwide US HFDF network."

CROSSHAIR

CROSSHAIR HFDF Network

blue dot = US HFDF sensors; red dot = partners HFDF sensors.

(TSIISIIIREL USA, AUS, CAN, GBR, and NZL)

(U) This article is reprinted from the February Foreign Affairs Digest

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