Title: 2008-13 Strategic Plan

Release Date: 2013-11-02

Document Date: 2007-10-03

Description: This eleven page document describes how the NSA sees its own mission, internal culture and the challenges it faces: see the New York Times article No Morsel Too Minuscule for All-Consuming N.S.A., 2 November 2013.

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(U) SIGINT Mission Strategic

Plan

FY2008-2013

3 October 2007 Release

¡Signals Intelligence

Derived From: NSA/CSSM 1-52
Dated: 20070108
Declassify On: 20320108

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(U) BACKGROUND

(U//FOUO) America invests in intelligence programs to detect, and to provide full and timely
answers to questions about, the hidden pursuits of persons, states, or organizations. In the case
of signals intelligence (SIGINT). the expectation is that surveillance of targeted electronic
signals and systems will yield insight that’s worth the costly capabilities and operations needed
to obtain it. For over 50 years, from World War II through the global war on terrorism, this
investment has been justified, but the mission is still rightly judged by the answers it delivers.
The implied business model is to position the mission to cover enough priority targets to ensure a
steady stream of valued products and sendees for decision makers and other SIGINT consumers.

(U) This strategic plan seeks to maintain or enhance the mission’s value in light of the challenges
and opportunities - of the unfolding network age. It frames and establishes several key aims
and assigns responsibility for actions needed to attain them. At the highest level, success is
defined as stable or improved responsiveness to customer needs, while doing best against the
targets that matter most and avoiding strategic surprise.1

(U) The plan w as developed through the on-line collaboration of over 250 SIGINT practitioners
and partners, working within a framework created by the chief SIGINT strategist. It focuses on a
small set of acts that should pay large dividends, and introduces data-driven processes to track
progress, spot problems, and prompt adjustments. It’s how we’ll continue to modernize the way
we prepare for, perform, and appraise SIGINT operations in a world in transformation.

(U) DRIVERS

(S//REL) Since 2003 the intelligence community' has been guided by a national intelligence
priorities framework (NIPF) that maps customer needs into bands (A. B. and C) of successively
lower concern. “Band A” topics include those strategic, asymmetric, and other threats that have
the potential to greatly harm the L'.S. or its interests Within each topic, a 1-5 priority' is assigned
to specific geopolitical or non-state entities of interest, with I being the highest. Of course, not
all intelligence questions are necessarily best, or even reasonably, probed by SIGINT means.
Potential customers are asked to request SIGINT only when they can characterize its expected
contribution as supplementary, substantial, key. or extraordinary.

(S/7REL) Since October of 2005, a national intelligence strategy' has provided additional
direction. Its five overarching mission objectives are to defeat terrorism, prevent and counter the
spread of weapons of mass destruction, bolster the growlh of democracy, penetrate hard targets,
and anticipate developments of strategic concern. Of course, neither these nor the roster of
“Band A” topics represent a radical shift from prior thinking. For several years, the SIGINT
system has pursued these issues, intensifying efforts to harvest data from computers. Internet
traffic, and other packetized communications in the process. As the chart shows, there has in

(U) As outlined in Appendix A, end-to-end performance will be judged by quantitative and qualitative
analysis of customer requests and mission deliverables, and by authoritative customer surveys.

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fact been significant growth in the percentage of customer questions, and especially high priority
ones, that are being at least partially answered by serialized SIGINT reporting.'

‘Band A" Requests
quests

■Band B" Requests
'Band C” Requests

U//FQUQ

03 FY 04 FV Q1 FY G2FY 03 FY Q4 FY Q1 FY Q2FY Q3 FY Q4 FY Q1 FY Q2 FY Q3FY

2004 2004 2006 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 , _

insular regimes often

remains at a premium, as is information about asymmetric threats such as weapons of mass
destruction, hostile cyber activities, and some terrorist organizations. Moreover, past gains arc
always under pressure from the relentless evolution of targets and technology.

(TS//SI//REL) For instance, as Internet routing and sendee nodes become more dispersed, some
lucrative SIGINT chokepoints vanish and it takes more access points or ovcr-the-nct operations
to maintain the same coverage. As strong cryptography is applied to identity management,
software attestation, protecting data at rest, and securing network metadata, we must comparably
expand cryptographic enabling, sensitive commercial partnerships, and cryptanalytic processing
capabilities. As users become more mobile and more anonymous, we must introduce new
association and pattern detection technology, lest targets of interest be lost or overlooked.

(S//SLVREL) At the same time, global modernization makes intelligence on economic, political,
and other civil issues more valuable, and relevant targets tend to favor networks. Internet-centric
activities such as e-commerce, e-voting, and on-net industrial and utility control beg to be mined,
even as we expand existing operations against both public and private nets. Mounting interest in
cyber security and the on-line aspects of crime and extremism also spur demand for network
surveillance, as well as more interaction with atypical customers such as state and local
governments, and tighter partnerships with consumers whose own target knowledge can help
steer and interpret collection or whose operations can be "cued" by SIGINT.

(S//REL) Some efforts to recruit, train, and direct Islamic and other extremists are already
entrusted to networks, and so will be many plans and acts of the PRC as it rises to be a near-peer
competitor. Ruling institutions of even rogue states make some use of Internet technology, as do
the scientists and proliferators with which they work. In fact, fewer and fewer targets of any
stripe or location are far removed from a colleague, confidant, or confederate that’s in the know'
and on the net.



(U) "Questions" arc defined here as desired essential elements of information specified in standing
COM I NT or HSINT requirements. They're considered "addressed" when cited in serialized reporting issued during
the quarter.

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(U) VISION, VECTORS, & VALUES

(U) Our mission is to answer questions about threatening activities that others mean to keep
hidden. Tin's is the essence of what we accomplish for the American people, whether we're
supporting the global war on terrorism, infiltrating the leadership circles of strategic rivals or
rogue states, or anticipating geopolitical and target technology trends.

(U//FOUO) Our vision, or aspiration, is to utterly master the foreign intelligence implications of
networks and network technology. Even conservative people and institutions find themselves
having to entrust their plans and operations to networks or else so limit their ability to acquire
information, issue instructions, and move people, money, materiel, and ideas as to risk
irrelevance. The mission must be planned, equipped, and executed for best effect, against the
objectives that matter most, in this brave new digital world.

(U) At the heart of the task is the need to sense, and make sense of, systems, traffic, users, and
various ty pes and levels of organizations. This is a circular and fast moving process. New
insight leads to better sensing, which leads to still greater insight, and so on - sometimes in
months, but sometimes in minutes.

(S//SI//REL) Today, most of what we access goes unexplored or unexploited. Humans can
neither follow network fiows in real-time nor forge intelligence gold from an accumulation of
isolated data points whose worth is only apparent when combined w ith one another and with
what others may know . Our global sensors need to be able to think for themselves and talk to
one another instantaneously. Our processing systems need to automatically find meaning in and
across vast and dispersed data sets. Our analysts need new skills and new tools, and need to
apply them in new ways, often in concert with customers. Our business processes need to
promote data-driven decision-making and more disciplined end-to-end planning.

(U) This will not happen without leadership and the courage to ask if the practices and structures
that sen e us well today will continue to do so in the future. At the same time, some immutable
values must continue to influence our daily choices and behavior. All military' and civilian
employees are called to commit to lawfulness, honesty, integrity, fairness, accountability,
loyalty, collaboration, innovation, and learning. As we in the SIGINT mission grapple with the
peculiar risks and rewards of the times and tasks at hand, a few implications of these
commitments warrant special comment:

r (U) SIGINT professionals must hold the moral high ground, even as terrorists or dictators
seek to exploit our freedoms. Some of our adversaries wrill say or do any thing to advance
their cause; we will not. All employees must have uncompromising devotion to personal and
institutional integrity doing the right thing, every time, regardless of how difficult it is.

r (U) SIGINT professionals must be honest with themselves, colleagues, superiors, and
overseers. When something won't work, isn't working, hasn't worked, or went wrong, we
need to say so, with respect, but also with unmistakable clarity. Wc then find a different way
forward.

> (U) SIGINT professionals need to grow and prosper as mission assets and as individuals.
We encourage career-long learning, periodic stretch assignments, and a balance between
work and home life that honors duty to family, community, and self as well as to country.

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(U) KEY AIMS & ACTIONS

(U) We seek to maximize the SIGINT mission's value to the nation in the context of the
intelligence priorities and technological realities of the network age. Fortunately, no matter what
streams of operational and engineering initiatives - from the incremental to the transformational
- are running their course at a particular time, a few core structures can channel them for best
effect. The follow ing goals are intended to do just that. As implementation of the plan proceeds,
the responsibilities described below will be further decomposed into subtasks for various mission
elements and levels. Ultimately, much of the daily work of the SIGINT enterprise will benefit,
including the immediate mission imperatives presented in Appendix B.

(U//FOUO) Goal 1: Annually improve SIGINT on NIPF “priority I” tasks and “Band A” topics
in general, as measured by more even performance across topics and rising performance overall. ’

A. (U) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in October 2007. the mission’s Deputy
Director for Customer Relationships (DDCR) will assess SIGINT mission performance
against NIPF “Band A” tasks using methods outlined in Appendix A. The DDCR will
provide the mission's senior leaders with quarterly "Hand A " performance reports and
quarterly identification of un- or under-satisfied “Hand A " tasks.

B. (U//FOUO) Responsibility- and Accountability: Beginning in FY08, the DDCR will lead the
missions Deputy' Directors for Analysis and Production (DDAP) and Data Acquisition
(DDDA), and Associate Deputy Director for SIGINT Development (ADD SIGDEV) through
joint reviews of un- or under-satisfied “Band A” tasks to find and address problems. The
DDC R will provide the SIGINT Director with quarterly improvement plans and progress
reports, including concurrence, analysis, and commitments from the DDAP, DDDA, and
ADD SIGDEV.

C. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: By April 2008, the DDDA will begin
tracking the current and expected purpose and (using documented business rules)
productivity of Is*, 2nd, and 3fd party' SIGINT accesses.'1 The DDDA will provide the SIGINT
Director with quarterly comparisons of the "Rand A " tasks given to, and the disposition and
use o f the resultant collection from, each access, highlighting un- or under-satisfied tasks.

D. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in FY09, the DDDA will
systematically reengineer, retire, or replace (directly or though a partner) chronically

(U//FOUO) While performance against "Band A" topics is our benchmark, we will continue to work all
high priority tasks, and lesser “Band B" and “Band C issues when it's affordable and plays to our strengths.

(U//FOUO) “Access” as used here refers to data sources that an; at least partially funded via the collection
and operations investment portfolio. Tlic purpose or productivity of an access may relate to tipping, steering, or
otherwise enabling other collectors, as opposed to collecting targeted information directly. Uniqueness and
untapped potential are also factors to consider as is the expected contribution of an access in the event of a
reasonably likely and significant future crisis or concern.

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underperforming accesses. The DDDA will annually provide the SIGINT Director with a
multiyear "access enhancement ’’ plan as part of the program build cycle.

E. (U) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in FY08. the Agency’s Chief Technology
Officer (CTO) - with the fiill support of relevant collection, analysis, and customer
engagement elements will start to systematically instrument SIGINT tasking, ingestion,
processing, analysis, and delivery systems to automatically tag data so that its source and
subsequent processing and handling can be associated with some categorization of its
ultimate use or intelligence value. The CTO will provide the Agency's Senior Leadership
with semi-annual reports on the percentage of data accessed that can he so associated.

(U//FOUO) Goal 2: Field an analytic workforce that promptly and methodically discovers and

exploits priority secrets entrusted to networks worldwide and helps customers turn this insight

into significant national outcomes.

A. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning with FY08. the CTO will enable
improved information discovery by orchestrating annual increases in the proportion of newly
acquired and archived data and metadata that can be readily searched and retrieved by
analysts across the enterprise using standard workstations. The ('TO will develop baseline
measures of accessible data. query times, and query difficulty, and provide the SIGINT
Director with annuaI improvement reports. beginning at the end ofLYOH.

B. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: In FY08 and out. the NSA/CSS Senior
Language and NSA/CSS Senior Intelligence Authorities will maintain a global training
requirement for all cryptologic language and intelligence analysts performing various classes
of missions and functions; will identify the types of learning activities that meet the
requirement, based on current and projected needs and workforce statistics; and will provide
data on organizational compliance to SIGINT mission and Agency leadership. The NSA/CSS
Senior language and Intelligence Authorities and line managers of relevant organizations
will ensure that at least 80% of all cryptologic intelligence and language analysts wilt
engage in ¡60 hours of prescribed approved professional development every two years, and
that at ¡east 10% of language and intelligence analysts working the counterterrorism mission
will be engaged in advanced or specialized training at any given time?

C. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in FY08, the DDCR and the
DDAP will cultivate client-consultant relationships with more customers to facilitate new
and more productive tasking and consumption of SIGINT products and services. The DDAP
will provide the SIGINT Director with an annual report on the number, disposition, and
documented impact of analysts sewing in full-time consultancy assignments.

D. (C//REL) Responsibility' and Accountability*: Beginning in FY08. the DDAP will increase
the practice of forward deploying analysts into customer workspaces to facilitate real-time
analysis and iterative consultation where needed. The DDAP will provide the SIGINT
Director with quarterly summaries of the number and location of forward deployed analysts
and their operational impact as assessed by customer surveys.

E. (U//FOUO) Responsibility' and Accountability: Beginning in FY08. the DDAP will
systematically hand off mature analytic tasks to qualified partners when doing so increases

(U) The latter is already a requirement of the National Counterterrorism Intelligence Plan

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the effectiveness or efficiency of the resources available to the U.S government and the
SIGINT mission. The DDAP will provide the SIGINTDirector with an annual report on the
tasks so "franchised" over the previous fiscal year, how any recovered resources were
reemployed, and the customer impacts of both.

(U) Goal 3: Annually increase the use of business cases to allocate pay and non-pay dollars and

scarce skills for better returns on investment than alternative ways of using the same resources.6

A. (U//FOUO) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in FY08, the chief SIGINT
strategist will identify those skills that, for lack of critical mass, keep us from meaningfully
migrating to new net centric tools and techniques, even if resources arc adequate to expand
existing types of collection, processing, or analysis operations. Prior to each year’s program
build cycle, the chief SIGINT strategist will provide investment portfolio managers and the
SIGINT mission’s senior leadership with an annual list of work roles whose incumbents are
to be considered "scarce resources" for business planning purposes.

II. (U) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning in FY08, the DDCR and the ADD
SIGDEV will fuse insight into technology and geopolitical trends and then clearly articulate
the prioritized implications for the SIGINT mission. Prior to each year's program build
cycle, the DDCR and the ADD SIGDEV will provide investment portfolio managers with
easily consumable and actionable planning guidance aimed at avoiding technological or
strategic surprise and optimally ordering potential investments.

C. (U) Responsibility and Accountability: Beginning with the FY10-15 program build, the
Collection & Operations, Processing & Exploitation, Analysis & Production, and Mission
Management investment portfolio managers will revalidate or construct new business cases
covering ever larger proportions of their pay and non-pay submissions. As part of each
year's program build cycle, each of the four investment managers will submit business cases
to the SIGINT Director covering more of their portfolio than previous budgets.

I (U) INVESTMENTS-------------------------------------------------------

(U) The national intelligence program allocates pay and non-pay dollars to the SIGINT mission
through seven investment portfolios. As discussed below , the work of each must be tailored for
success in a changing world. Ultimately, desired customer outcomes demand certain operational
concepts and functions. These require sets of personnel and technical capabilities and supporting
infrastructure, all playing the right role at the right time as scripted by system engineering.

ft') Collection and Operations

(TS//SI//REL) Historically, we’ve arrayed independent accesses against various streams of point-
to-point communications. As we shift from intercepting links to exploiting networks though,
multiple collection platforms must be engineered and outfitted to work in concert, and often in
real-time. Vast quantities of message externals and other network metadata must be harv ested.

(U) Such business cases should lake into account national priorities, geopolitical and technology forecasts,
mission assessment data, and defensible cost information.

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often via bulk “midpoint” collection of global backbones. Vendors and sendee providers must
also be leveraged to obtain metadata and other targeting and vulnerability information, as well as
traffic. “Endpoint” operations must expand, to retrieve more targeted data directly and to alter
routing or encryption for the benefit of passive sensors.

(S//SI//REL) Midpoint collectors will still be used to acquire content (and not just metadata), but
with less success and at greater cost as traffic volumes and velocities rise. Mobile and tactical
systems, covert and clandestine programs, and overhead assets will continue to perform their
specialized tasks until the spread of network technology offers a better play, and will be
modernized as the mission requires or when automation or new technology can significantly
reduce long-term manpow er or lifc-cyclc support costs. Endpoint methods will be used for more
ELINT and FIS tasks, gathering data on some weapons or emitters before they’re deployed.

(I ) Processing and Exploitation

(S//SI//REL) If collection operations around the globe are to work in tandem in real-time, then
the processing and exploitation fabric of the SIGINT system must provide for distributed storage
and robust messaging. Fast, flexible, front-end processors must spot targets based on patterns,
events, or metadata rather than pre-defined selectors or brute force scanning of content. High
performance computing systems must extract meaning from huge data sets and to negate data
encryption and computer access controls.

(S//SI//REL) Ncwr developments will stress standardized interfaces that let diverse applications
share infrastructure, and will favor automation and off-the-shelf technology over manual
processes and point solutions. New SIGINT system architectures will de-couple event detection
from follow-on reaction and processing, so that applications can be added or deleted with little
impact to ongoing operations and so that sensors and processors can serve many tasks rather than
one operational stovepipe. All this - and increased use of remotely configurable commercial
hardware - will also cut the time needed to retool or refocus technical infrastructure as customer
needs, target behaviors, or technical constraints change; they'll reduce life-cycle costs as well.

(L) Analysis and Production

(S//SI//REL) In the aftermath of the digital revolution, powerful analytics and empowered
analysts are how we discover targets and their secrets and how we harness our technical
capabilities to our customers’ missions. Advances in collection and processing must let us flag
events of interest as they happen, accumulate far more context-rich metadata, and collate
targeted communications and transactions across accesses. To take advantage of this, analysts
must have new tasking, association, and presentation tools, and larger and more adaptable
storage and retrieval systems. Fortunately, information management and mining is central to the
Internet age and next-generation analytics can employ many commercial products and practices.

(S//REL) Looking forward, we will continue to devote more analysts to exploiting digital
network intelligence and to working problems related to counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation.
China, Iran, and the Middle East, aggressively investing in the necessary tools and training, and
“franchising” some mature missions to qualified partners. We will deemphasize the traditional
concept of a SIGINT storefront (requirements in/reporting out) in favor of having far more
analysts working physically or virtually within the missions that they support. They will act
more as a consultancy than a simple data source, helping shape customer plans to reflect the “art

(U//FOUO) Some characterization of actual emitters in real world operation may still, however, be
necessary.

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of the possible" and giving each customer’s own analytic workforce the power and know ledge to
reap, rather than just consume. SIGINT.

(U) Mission Management

(U//FOUO) To optimize ever more complex, fast-moving, cross-access operations, we must
introduce intelligent agent technology that automatically updates tasking and status as it interacts
with technical infrastructure, visualization tools, and authoritative databases. To prevent
strategic surprise, we must track geopolitical and technology trends to identify potential gaps and
mitigate them before mission performance degrades. To accommodate an increased fusion of
SIGINT analysis with customer activities, we must develop new mission management tools that
capture and handle a freer flow of interactions and ncwr forms of support. To pave the way for
more meaningful productivity' estimates and more enlightened investment decisions, we must
instrument collection, processing, and dissemination systems so that sources can be linked
through analysis to customer outcomes.

(I’) Research

(S//S1//REL) Our ability to master global networks and handle previously unimagined volumes
of raw data from both passive and active collection will depend in large part on successful
research. Requirements include ever more powerful methods of knowledge discovery and
management, highly capable software implants and mobile agents, optimal distributed storage
arrangements, and advanced analytic algorithms. Underpinning all this must be high
productivity computing systems and world-leading cryptanalytic talent that can both cope with
pervasive hard encryption and find and exploit meaning in large data sets generalfy. Researchers
must also break new ground in the area of enterprise security management if we're to fully
realize a more interconnected, distributed, and autonomous SIGINT operations fabric and
geographically dispersed analytic collaboration.

(U) Enterprise IT and Enterprise Management

(U//FOUO) New operational strategies and capabilities can't deliver on their promises without
the right military, civilian, and contractor workforce, a modernized enterprise information
technology infrastructure, and an assured 21s' century' physical plant. The quantity and quality of
language analysts, intelligence analysts, mathematicians, and computer network exploitation
specialists are priorities, as is rebuilding the acquisition, system engineering, and
business/project management workforce. Another imperative is modernizing enterprise
networks, platforms, and services; this effort ranges from bandwidth expansion, to server
consolidation and refresh, to introducing user tokens and other information assurance measures.
A third is dealing with long-deferred real property maintenance and the mitigation of long-
simmering power, space, and cooling shortfalls.

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(U) APPENDIX A: Assessing Overall Performance

(U//FOUO) Customers request SIGINT by specifying the “essential elements of information”
(EEIs) that they want to uncover. The National Intelligence Priorities Framework (NIPF) maps
each F.EI into one of three bands (A, B. or C) of successively decreasing concern according to
general topic, and assigns a I-5 priority based on the combination of the topic and specific
geopolitical or non-state entity involved. Responsive SIGINT is delivered in several forms, but
serialized reporting dominates, and so one indicator of end-to-end mission performance is the
percentage of requested EEIs for which at least some responsive reporting is provided (i.e., the
EEI citation rate).

(U//FOUO) At a macro-level, the overall citation rate for “Band A” EEIs should be greater than
that for “Band B,” which in turn should exceed that for “Band C”. Beyond that, performance
against each “Band A” topic is also weighed in accordance with the following first-order rules.
Performance is poor if a “Band A” topic’s rate doesn’t even exceed the overall “Band B” rate.
Performance is weak if a topic's rate is above the overall “Band B” rate, but less than the overall
“Band A” rate. Performance is fair or gootl if a topic’s rate is at or above the overall “Band A”
rate, with the latter also requiring that the rate for the topic’s “priority 1” EEIs be higher than that
for the topic's EEIs generally.

(U) Citation rates reflect only the existence of responsive SIGINT, and not its impact. Moreover,
they don’t directly account for requests that are addressed entirely by other than serialized
reporting, and they can be skewed by careless recordkeeping or differences in granularity
between EEIs. Therefore, quarterly citation rate assessments arc complemented with two
broader, more subjective, and more manpower intensive views of customer outcomes and
satisfaction.

(U//FOUO) The first is a quarterly, manual assessment of performance against each NIPF “Band
A” topic that includes niche interactions that don't involve EEIs as well as deliverables beyond
serialized reporting. Performance is graded on the extent to which records show that responsive
information was pushed to or pulled by a customer, and sampling suggests that the records that
tie deliverables to requests are accurate, and sampling suggests that the information delivered
was germane vice just tangential. Performance is poor if responsiveness is w ell below average
(relative to that for “Band A” tasks as a whole), weak if responsiveness is somewhat below
average, fair if responsiveness is average or better, and good if responsiveness overall is average
or better and is better still against high priorities.

(U//FOUO) The second is a quarterly survey of roughly 20 intelligence consumers, specified by
position based on their ability to speak knowledgably and authoritatively about the SIGINT
contributions to key civil or military customers. Those solicited represent the unified combatant
commands and the Joint StafT; the Departments of State. Treasury, Commerce. Energy, and
Homeland Security; the Central Intelligence and Defense Intelligence Agencies, the Federal
Bureau of Investigation; the Ding Enforcement Administration; the National Counterterrorism
Center: the U.S. Trade Representative; and the White House Situation Room.

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(U) APPENDIX B: IMMEDIATE IMPERATIVES

• (S//REL) Gain more pervasive and persistent insight into al-Qa*ida. al-Qa'ida affiliates.
Hezbollah, and other terrorist targets, despite their increasingly aggressive COMSEC
practices.

• (S//REL) Infiltrate the most secret communications and data of the leadership, military,
and security bureaus of Iran, North Korea. China, and similar targets of high concern.

• (U) Better define and pursue immediate, near-term, and strategic mission management.

• (U//FOUO) Optimize SIGINT discovery to find and follow targets, refine their
prosecution, and anticipate their shifts.

• (U) Identify and plan for geopolitical and technology trends.

• (U//FOUO) Introduce productized net-centric capabilities into mainstream SIGINT
operations on a scale that produces significant dividends in the counterterrorism arena
and elsewhere.

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